Thursday, August 22, 2013

Maravar is the pandiyan in "Vijayanagar" history


E. M. 


V. Ka 
G. C. 
S. Ml 
G. A. 
P. R. 
D. B. 
S. Va 



Martinui mijHOFr, loe nague, tioiiand. 



Xlbe /IDa&vas Xlliiiversiti' Ibistortcal Series 


[Price, 4 rtipes 8 annas.\ 







Professor of Indian History and Archceology and Fellow of the 
University of Madras. 











•*• y:*.' *:: ..:/*\\«' 


n^HE collection that follows is primarily the work of Mr. 
^ A. Rangaswaini Sarasvati, b,a., University Research 
Student, working under me. As he had done some work in 
this line before obtaining the University studentship, he was 
set to make a systematic collection of all passages in both 
Telugu and Sanskrit literature, bearing upon the history of 
the Empire of Vijayanagar. His collection was found to be 
of considerable value and the Syndicate of the University of 
Madras Sanctioned publication, by the University, of selected 
passages under my editorship. Of the historical value of 
references in literature generally Sir George Grierson says in 
a letter to me : ** I cordially agree with you in the importance 
you attach to casual references in non-historical Indian litera- 
ture. These have too often been neglected by students, 
and they not uncommonly afford historical data which cannot 
be found elsewhere." Several passages in the following col- 
lection offer very good illustration of this position. The 
extracts are taken from unpublished manuscripts in several 
cases, and in case of published work the works laid under 
contribution have so far been but very imperfectly exploited 
for the purpose. The introduction will give an idea of 
the salient features of this collection. The work of the 
student deserves commendation. 

The course of his work was much facilitated by the ready 
assistance that he always received from the Librarian and 
the staff of the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library. 
In the present stage of manuscripts cataloguing in this part 
of the country much has to be left for chance. A few of the 
most important among the works laid under contribution in 
the following selection are found to be in the libraries but not 
catalogued. While, therefore, the collection presented here 


may, from our present knowledge of manuscripts, be considered 
fairly exhaustive, it will not be surprising at all if many more 
come to light through the active work of the various search 
parties that are out at work from the Government Manu- 
scripts Library now. When practically the whole work was 
in type, the student lighted upon the work Sivatattvaratna- 
kara from which three excerpts, throwing new light upon the 
later history of Vijayanagar, are made. If other works like 
this should be forthcoming, it need not cause any surprise 
at all. 

In the work of selecting and editing, I had throughout 
the willing assistance of the student himself which reii(^ered 
the work much less onerous to me than it would otherwise 
have been. It only remains to acknowledge the assistance 
rendered in proof-reading by the other Research student of 
mine, Mr. R. Satyanatha, b.a. (Hons.), and the excellent work 
of the Government Press in putting the matter through the 
press. Those interested in historical research will surely 
feel grateful to the Madras University Syndicate for their 
enlightened policy in promoting the publication of this work, 
which, let me hope, is but the beginning of a long series 
to come. 


6/// February 19 19. 


Page 26, line ^.—Rajagamhhiram : There was a Rajagambhlra 
Sambuvarayan with a date Saka I180 (A. D. 1258). There is an 
inscription of his at Padaivldu (S.I.Ins. I. 78). It was probably 
from him that Padaivldu got this name either because he fortified 
the hill, or made it the citadel of his kingdom. There seems little 
doubt that this Padaivldu in the Arni taluk is what the poetess had 
in mind. 

Page 27, line 28.^ — The Sultan of Madura killed by Kampa seems 
to be the fifth Sultan of Madura, Nasir-ud-din Damaghan Shah, 
on whose accession Ibn. Batura left Madura finally. There is only ti 
one c^in of his available of A.H. 745, and that of his successor 
Adil Shah bears date A.H. 757. This seems to indicate an inter- 
regnum of about twelve years, and it is probable that Nasir-ud-din 
killed Bellala IV and put an end to the dynasty. For a full discus- 
sion see my forthcoming work " Muhammadan Invasions of South "^ 
India," Lecture VI. 

Pages 35 and 38, line l^--Jyotishkudi : This is the place to which 
fugitives under PiUai Lokacharya took the Ranganatha image 
from SrTrangam for safety, and where the Acharya died. The 
identification of this place depends upon the actual route taken 
by the party, as there are places of the name in the vicinity 
of Alagar Tirumalai (Sundarachallam of the poet). Kalaiyarkoil 
seems to answer best as there was a Vishnu temple also in it, 
though at present it is only a Saiva centre. It had the reputation of 
having been an impregnable forest of Jyoti trees {Cardiospermum 
halicacabum) and had a fortress known to classical Tamil literature 
as Kanapper, which name figures among those of the strongholds 
taken by the Ceylon general in the war of succession for the 
Pandya throne in the sixties of the twelfth century. There is 
a Sodugudi about two miles from Ilayankudi formerly a Dharma- 
sanam (charity-gift), but now a Muhammadan village in the Siva- 
ganga zamindari, about seven miles north of Paramagudi railway 
station. There is an obscure Brahman village of the name about 
ten miles from Alagar koil (Tirumaliruriijolai), but there is nothing 
to recommend the place to these fugitives. For a fuller discussion, 
as the result of my own investigations of the locality, please refer 
to my forthcomming work quoted above. 

Page %%. — Manduva: T\\\?> place is identified with Manve in 
certain places in the course of the book. This can be either of two 


places : Mandu, the Mahammadan capital of Malva, at this period; 
or Manve between Raichur and Mudgal, near the north bank 
of the Tungabhadra in the Nizam's Dominions. It was probably 
at this latter that the battle between Ramaraja Tirumala and the 
Adil Shah of the time took place in the reign of Vira-Narasimha 
Raya (p. 205). It is very likely that this place is referred to as 
Manava-durga in the campaigns of Narasa (pp. 106 and 108 R). 
The actual place referred to in any case will have to be settled by 
the context. 

Page 'i^S.—Kembdvi: This word means ' red well/ and Krishna 
Deva Raya says in the colophon to the fifth canto of his work 
Amuktamdlyadd (p. 1 58) that it had walls ' reaching up to the skies' 
and he made the name real by filling the whole place with 
the blood of the Yavanas (Muhammadans) thereby indicating 
that he fought a great battle against the Muhammadans. This 
achievement of his comes after his invasion of Orissa, where one 
would expect a reference to the battle of Raichur. Kembavi is not 
very far from Raichur according the late Dr. Fleet's note in the 
Epigraphia Indica, volume XII, 291-2. It seems likely that Krishna 
refers by Kembavi to the battle generally spoken of as the battle 
of Raichur. 

Page 269, Extract 89. — Raghunatha claims in this passage credit 
for having invented a permanent arrangement of the steps for 
the Vina by means of Which any tune can be played upon the 
instrument without a special adjustment on each occasion. The 
credit of this invention is popularly given to one Venkatesa Makhi, 
one of the sons of Govinda Dikshita, the farhily minister of this 
dynasty of Tanjore nayaks, on the authority apparently of 
Chatiirdandiprakasika of Venkatesa. That the vIna had not this 
arrangement is clear from the following verse in the Maniicharifram 
of Peddana, the Poet Laureate of Krishna Deva Raya. Peddana 
says in effect that the instrument left adjusted for the Raga natai 
by the sleepy musician began automatically to play the tune, out 
of time, moved by the morning breeze, when the proper tune should 
have been Desatchu 

A4vasa III. 


e^^ e$o|Jfco"^^S)0^c K^-t^ CJ^l\^^l\lr II 57 II 

Addenda et corrige^nda ix 

Possibly the Raja made the suggestion and the Pandit worked 
it up. 

Pages 334 and 335 — Vijayaraghava Nayaka of Tanjore is said to 
have constructed four forts apparently to guard his frontier, namely 
Pattukkotta, Atandagi, Relatali and Tiruppattur. Of these the first 
is undoubtedly the modern Pattukkotta ; the second is what is now 
called Ararhtangi and the last is Tiruppattur in the Ramnad district 
on the road to Madura from Trichinopoly. The third name seems to 
be miswritten for Kllanilai. I was able to trace an old road from 
Ararhtangi to Tiruppattur for a little over a mile on either side of 
Kllanilai. Its old fort had seen much active war around it in the 
British campaigns against Chinnamarudu and Umayan. The error 
seems to have crept in owing to a copyist's blunder, which is quite 
possible in regard to this name, v/ritten in Telugu. 

\^N.B. — The following do not include what are errors in the originals themselves, 
several passages having been extracted from single MSS.J 

Page 26, line 22— For ' 3T^ ^f^cTf^f ' read' ^^ ^\^ T — ^^ ' 
Page 52, line 11.- -For' '^^'^^^W^'^^] ' read ' ^Ff ^q^S^f^f ' 
Page 59» line 6.— For '«o-'k' ^ead '^'^^^* 
Page 75, line 12.— For ' ^\%m ' read * ^Tf^ ' 
Page 81, line 16.— For ' '^^^■^ ' read 'S'f^^^-^ ' 
Page 86, line 2^.— For ' ;j5b<ix5o^^-c ' read '^boc^^^q' 
Page 91, line 6.— For ' come ' read ' comes.' 
Pa^e 105, line 9.— For ' e5o_5^ ' read ' 2& e^s ' 

Page 106, last line. — For '• — z? 'read ' 0^^ ' 

Page 109, line 4.— For ' ^TI$ ' read ' ^f]q ' 

Page III, line 12.— Read ' Leave out ' after ' both the works.* 

Page 131, line 33-— For ' Aravittivaru ' r^aJ' Aravltivaru.' 

Page 137, line 22.— For « a)a^3o \ead ^ 23>S3X ' 

Page 148, line 10.— For < f^'^^^oB ' read * s^^i6^o^ ' 

Page 152, line S-—For ' qj^Hm: ' read ' ^\^^]^m ' 
Page ISSJine Il.-For ' ^35imT'T^' read ' ^^^mJH,^ 
Page 158, line 2.— For * Raianatha ' read * Rajanatha.' 
Page 188, li?te 20.— For c ^h^\jh ' read < ^"Sr-.e^ * 

Page 193, line 22.— For' ^^^T% ' read ' ^^Jrf ' 


Page 197, line ll.—For ' ^H]^^^^^ ^read ^ ^'TT^^g??^^ ' 

Page 200, line 17.— For rff^ read ^^^ 
Page 205, line 21. — For ' brothers ' r^<^/J * the brothers ' 
Page 207, line 12. — F(9r < w6ii»^c9' rf^a^ < e^^s^^yr^^ 
Pages 225 rt«^ 226 — Title For ' Narasabupallyamu ' read ' Narasa- 
bhupalTyamu.' . 

Page 228, //«^ 15.— F^r ' qif^^R^ ' read ' JTf^qH^T^'fT ' 

Page 236, //w^ 32. — For < "^^w ' read < "^ssbo ' 

P«^^24I, li?ie l.~For t ^^r^i^-^^ read ^ §6^-^:So^ ' 

Page 258, /z«^ 21.— For ' ^2?i^ ' r^'^^ c s^g-^ ' 

P^a^^ 265, line 34. — F(9r ' ^s5-£lJ0 2x» ' r^<^^ < ^S!-2)e^^^oe3o ' 

P^^^ 281, //«^ l9,--For ' ^ ^^]^~^^ ' read ' ^^^-^H^t^ ' 

Note — On the genealogical table on page 254 please draw a line to indicate Raghu- 
natha's queea Kalavati was the daughter of Vemparaja and Lakshmamba. 



^ I 
< ! 




m O 






\ i 

a. 2 

,-. rt 


5? =^2: 



//. — The Saluva or Second Vijayanagar Dynasty. 

The Moon. 






Gunda 1= Kamala Devi. 

Gunda II 



Virahobala. Saluva Mangi.. Savitri Mangi. 

Gauta II (one of six sons). 


Gun^a = Mallamba. 

Narasimha = 

, Srirangamba 

(S. 1378-I408). 


Not named ; killed Immadi Nrsimha 
by an agent called or Dharmaraya 
Tymarasa as slated or Tammaya 
by Nuniz. Deva (Saka 

1414— 1427;. 

i I 

Saluva Tippa = Harima, sister of 

I Devaraya II (S. 1352—64). 

Parvataraja | 

(Saka 1378). Gopa (Saka 1352). 

I I 

Tippa, author of the 

commentary on the 

Kavyalankara Sutra 

and Taladipika. 

Timma, patron 
of the Tamil 
poets Irattai- 
yar and Kala- 

IIL — Ttie Tuluva or Third Vijayanagar Dynasty. 

^ Moon. 


1 urvit^u. 

Timma = Devakl. 

i^vara r= Bukkama. 






By Tippampa. By Nagamamba, 


Bv Obamamba. 


Viranarasimha. Krishna Deva kaya. 

na Venkatadri. 


Tirumala. Tirumalamba 
married Aliya 
Rama Raya. 



Pcdda Timma. 























































-fl - 


~ fl" 











(< S 

s ■% 

II ^ 55 
rt cJ <v> 

■ — c S 

■ fl a 

cS o 
^ 11 

_ S 



08 ^ I 

^ fl 



"Si :§ 

fl "^lOj 

"~ '2 ;z 

1! I 


ee c 


cd cS 



!«! sag'? 

V— 3 O 
■.IT u, "^^ O c3 rt 

S ^ g ^ rt.^ 


rt 4J 4) 
O K 










— 'S5 o 


-5 S 

-" ^ "5 " 'CiJ O 

— , eS 


- £ .-^ ^ " 

'Z Ic ,t« 

-a t 

>C« .(53 


^ H^ 

<2 O IT OJ '^ 

" I ^s 


o :::i 



> ?3 


«.s a 

-c a 

.> — 


— s — «» 

.5 a 



2 cu&^ "" g '^ 

1 U*^ 

•^ g 

'— o 1 




VI. — The Keladi Dynasty 

Basava = Basavanima. 

I I 

Chauda. Bhadra, 

Sadasiva. Bhadra. 

Dodda Sankagna Nayaka 
= Vlramba. 

Venkatappa Nayaka Ramaraja Nayaka. 

= Abhinava Vlramba. 

Bhadrappa Nayaka 

Virabhadra Nayaka. 

Chikka Sankapaa Nayaka. 

Siddhappa Nayaka. 
Sivappa Nayaka. Venkatappa Nayaka. 

Bhadrappa Nayaka. 

Somasekhara Nayaka 
= Chennamamba. 

Basavappa Nayaka. 





1. Kamparayacharitram of Ganga Devi ^^ 23 

2. Jaimiai Bharatain of Pina Virabhadra 29 

3. Saluvabhyudayam of Rajanatha pindinia ... ... ... ... .., oq 

4. Ramabhyudayam of Saluva Narasimha ... ... ... .. 92 

5. Prapannamrtam of Anantarya 34 

6. Acharyasuktimuktavali of Kesavacharya 40 

7. Annals of Hande Anantapuram 45 

8. Madhavlya Dhatuvrtti by Sayauacharya ... 46 

9. Veda Bhashya by Sayauacharya 48 

10. Udaharanamala ol Bhoganatha ... ... ... ... ... ... ,. 48 

11. Dcvyaparadhastotra of Vidyaranya ..\ 50 

12. Tarkabhasha by Chennubhatta ;. ... 51 

13 Tatparya Dipika by Madhavacharya ... 51 

14. Nananharatnamala by Irugapa Landanatha , 52 

15. Narayanivilasa by Virupaksha ... 53 

16. Prayogaratnamala by Chaundapacharya ... .. .. 53 

17. Krldabhiramam by Vinukonda V'^al labharaya ... .4 ... ... ... 55' 

18. Haravilasam by Srinatha ... ... ... .. .. ..^ ... ... 57 

19. Mahanataka Sudhanidhi by Inimadi Deva Raya ... 60 

20. Chatu verses about Srinatha' s visit to Vijayanagaf 60 

21. Commentary on the Kavyalankara Sutra of Vamana .. 62 

22. Taladlpika of Saluva Gopa Tippa .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 63 

23. Vikramarkacharitramu of Jakkana ... ... ... ... ... ... 63 

24. Seshadharmamulu of Sarana Mantrl ... 65 

25. Gangadasapratapavilasam ... ... ... 65 

26. Srisailam plates of Virupaksha ... :.. .. ... ... 67 

27. Prapannamrtap of Anantarya ..: ... ... . ... ... ... 71 

28. Ramarajiyamu of Venkayya ...' / ... .. 79 

29. Ramabhyudaya of Saluva Narasimha ... .. ... ... ... ... 83 

30. Colophon of Ramabhyudaya by Dindima .. 85 

31. Jaimini Bharatamu of Pina Virabhadra 85 

32 Varahapuranam by Mallayya arid Singayya ... Sz 

33. Saluvabhyudayam by Dindima ... ... ... 90 

34. Ramarajiyamu, Aravhi Bukka and his ch ildren .. ... ... 102 

35. Pari] Jitapahara nam u by Nandi Timmana 106 

36. Achyutarayahhyudayam by Rajanatha ... ... ... ... ... ... 108 

37. Amuktamalyada by Krishqia Deva Raya .. ... ... ... ... ... 109 

38. Rayavachakamu ... no 

39. Krishnarayavijayam by Kumara Dhurjati ... ... ... ... ... ... ^29 

40. Amuktamalyada by Krishna Deva Raya 132, 

41. Parijatapaharanamu by Nandi Timmayya 138 

42 Jambavatlkalyanam by Krishna Deva Raya 142 




43. Agastya Bharata Champuvyakhya by Saluva Timma I43 

44. Tukkapanchakam ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ••• •■• M3 

45. Prabodhachandrotlaya-Vyakhya by Nadimlla Gopa ... I44 

46. llajasckhiracharitram by Madayagari Maliana ... ... M^ 

47 Krishnarjunasamvadam of Nadindla Gopa ... ... ... ... ... 149 

48. Mahimnastavavyakhya by DeSayamatya 15^ 

49. Peddana's chatu verses on Krishna Deva Raya 152 

50. Sri- Valla bhacharya-Charitram 154 

51. Tamil Navalar Charitai ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ••• ^55 

52. Lllavati of Vallabhacharya ^5^ 

53. Achyutarayabhyudayam of Rajanatha Dindima ... . 15^ 

54. Varadambikaparipayam by Tirumalamba ... 170 

55. Bhagavata Champu of Kajanatha ... 176 

56. The annals of Hande Anantapuram ... 17^ 

57. Ramarajfyamu, Aliya Rama and his children 181 

58. Svaramelakalanidhi by Ramayamatya Todaramalia ... 190 

59. Sivatattvaratnakara by Keladi Basavabhupala ^94 

60. Prapannamftam by Anantacharya «. ., 202 

61. Balabhagavatam of KOnerunathakavi 204 

62. Yadavabhyudayavyakhya by Appaya Dikshita 209 

63. Paramayogivilasam by Timmaraju ... ... ... ... ... ... 211 

64. Srutiranjanl by Tirumala Raya 2I2 

65. Raraarajiyamu, Tiramala Raya and his sons 213 

66. Vasucharitramu by Ramarajabhushana -. ... 216 

67. Chatu verse about Tirumala Raya 221 

68. Ramarajlyamu, Venkatadri and his sons 222 

69. Nirasabhiipallyaniu by Bhattu Mflrti 224 

70. Jambavatlparipayam by Ekamranatha »,, <.. ... 227 

7X. Satyaparinayam by Ekamranatha ... 229 

72. Lakshmivilasam by Rayasam Venkatapati ... •• 230 

73. Annals of Hande Anantapuram, Sriranga Raya 231 

74. Ahobalam Inscription of Sriranga Raya 233 

75. Yayaticharitramu by Ponnikanti Telagaaarya 236 

76. Tapatisamvaranam by Addanki Gangadhara .. 238 

77. Aminabad Inscription of Amfn Mulk ... 239 

78. Charuchandrodayam of Chennamaraju ... ... ... .,. ... ... 24* 

79. Ramarajiyamu, Venkatapati Raya ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 243 

80. Chandrabhanu Chariiram by Tarigoppula Maliana 247 

81. Siddhout Inscription of Matla Ananta 248 

82. Veries about Venkatapati Raya, Chinna Bomma Nayaka and Appaya Dtkshila. 250 

83. Prapannamj-tam, Venkatapati Raya ... ... ... ,„ ... ... 251 

84. Raghavendravijaya by Narayaga 252 

85. Raghunathabhyudayam of Vijayaraghava Nayaka ... 254 

86. Do, do. War with Jagga Raya ... 259 

87. Do, do. The Palace at Tanjore ... 264 

88. Sahitya Sudha by Govjnda Dikshita ... ... ... 267 

89. Sanglta Sudha by Raghunatha Nayaka ... ^ 269 

90. Sahityaratnakara by VagSaiiiraya^a Dikshita 269 



91. Raghunathabhyudayam of Ramabhadramha 

92. Chikkadeva Raya Vamsavali by Tirumalarya 

93. Bahulasvacharilram by Damarla Vtngala Bhupala 

94. Chatu verse about Jagga Raya and V'achama Nayaka ... 

95. Ushapariuayam by Dimarla Ankabhupala 

96. Chikkadevaraya VamSavaji, Sriranga Raya III ... 

97. Ramarajiyamu, Peddavenkata, ChJnna Venkata and his sons 

98. Tanjavuri Andhra Rajulacharitra ... 

99. Sivatattvaratnakara by Keladi Easavabhupala 

100. Sivatattvaratnakara, Venkatappa Nayaka and his successors 










THE history of the empire of Vijayanagar, which till recently 
was as good as lost to us, was recovered through the efforts of 
Mr. R. Sewell, whose work in South Indian Archaeology and Epi- 
graphy naturally gave him the qualifications to take up the work. 
He brought out his work ' A Forgotten Empire ' of Vijayanagar 
early in IQOO based upon his previous knowledge of the antiquities 
of the Madras Presidency, and of the information he derived from 
two Portuguese chronicles which were unearthed in the archives of 
Lisbon, and which he translated and appended to his work. 
Excellent as the work was for the time, and for the sources and 
historical material at his disposal, it suffered from the neglect of 
the evidence available in various forms in literature which go a 
long way towards filling up the many gaps that Epigraphy leaves 
in respect of that history. These sources are collected together 
in the following pages and they will speak for themselves. A 
constructive study of these goes a long way in correcting the 
chronicles in many places, and conveys information which would 
make a fuller history of the Empire of Vijayanagar possible. It 
is these untapped sources only that are brought together in the 
following extracts from various works, Sanskrit and Telugu 
principally, which bear on the particular period. Many of these 
are taken from manuscripts and published works now out of print. 
Some of the passages extracted are taken from works which rhay 
be available, but not in a form that would be useful to students not 
acquainted with Telugu. There is besides the advantage of these 
being brought together in a collection which otherwise it would be 
possible for one to get at only by voluminous reading. Each one 
of these extracts is provided with an English introduction which 


without pretending to be a literal translation of the passages, 
contains a faithful summary of the historical facts traceable in the 


It would be useful in this introduction to draw attention to those 
salient features of the history of Vijayanagar which these extracts 
either bring to light for the first time or clear up from the mist that 
surrounded them in various ways. None of these throws any light 
upon the actual circumstances under which the empire was 
founded. But the first problem that suggested itself to the reader 
of the history of Vijayanagar, as we had hitherto known it, is what 
exactly was the political condition of the south, and how the 
southern states were gathered together under Vijayanagar. The 
extracts from the work * Kamparayacharitam ' or ' Madhura 
Vijayam ' (since published in Trivandrum), by Gangadevi, wife of 
Kampana, throws the much needed light upon this dark spot. 
Various other works confirm what this single poem has to say 
regarding this matter. Of these latter, mention must be made of 
the Telugu Jaimini Bharatam, the Sanskrit works Saluva-abhyuda- 
yam and Rama-abhyudayam and the Vaishnava works on 
hagiology, the Prapannamrtam and Acharya Suktimuktavali. 
All these join in saying that Kumara Kampana, son of Bukka 
Raya, one of the five brothers who founded Vijayanagar, proceeded 
from his viceregal headquarters at Mulbagal into the Tonda- 
mandalam country, then under the rule of a dynasty of Sambuva 
Rayans who sprang into importance in the dismembered ChOla 
Empire. In this good work he was assisted by the Brahman 
general Gopana, and Saluva Mangu, the ancestor of the usurper 
Saluva Narasimha, the most distinguished of a body of dis- 
tinguished generals. These together swept the country clear of 
the Mussalman garrisons throughout the localities, killed the 
Muhammadan governor at Madura, and restored the temple of 
Srlrangam to its former condition by repairing the damages that 
it had suffered in the series of Muhammadan raids that took place 
for well-nigh half a century. The idol of Ranganatha which has 
had a long journey to various localities for safety was ultimately 
restored to its own home. 


The next group of extracts following bear upon the now some- 
what debated question of religious reconstruction at the time of the 


foundation of this empire. A body of learned men with the two 
famous brothers, MadhavScharya and Sayana at their head, were 
at the instance of Bukka himself, set to work upon committing to 
writing various works and commentaries bearing upon the religion 
of the Vedas. The fact that Bukka asked MadhavScharya to set 
about this indicates the exalted position which the latter held at 
court. The date of death of Madhavacharya i s now ascertained to 
be A.D. 1387 on epigraphical evidence, and he himself says that 
he lived 85 years. So the period of his life is clearly A.D. 1302 to 
1387. He must have been a ripe scholar of great reputation at the 
beginning of the empire of Vijayanagar, and that Bukka entrusted 
him with this extraordinary commission is only confirmatory of his 
great reputation for learning. Apart from all other considerations, 
it seems very likely that this was the man who is known to tradi- 
tion as Vidyaranya, notwithstanding the fact that this Madhava- 
charya is nowhere actually equated with the name * Vidyaranya.* 
The confusion has arisen apparently from another minister and 
general of Bukka, who lived about the same time and is sometimes 
described as ' the establisher of the path of the Upanishads.' The 
two Madhavas were of different gOtras and sutras as is clear from 
the extracts. The actual difficulty is that the one seems to have 
been a Saiva, and the other an Advaitin. The designation 
' establisher of the path of the Upanishads ', as applied to the 
second Madhava, seems deliberately intended to distinguish him 
from the other, who is described as the * establisher of the path of 
the Vedas.' The former designation seems to be the result of an 
effort to make rigid Saivism conform to the path of the Upanishads. 
This Madhava was the son of Chaundappa, who has again been 
confounded with the author of a Vaidic Work, Prayogaratnamala, 
a commentary on the Srauta Sutras. At the commencement of this 
work, which was written by him in the court of Bukka II, he says 
that he wrote the work at the request of Vidyaranya, and acknowl- 
edges that in the commentary he follows the instruction he 
derived from Vidyaranya. The following six lines give a 
character to Vidyaranya which agrees point by point with the 
description of Madhavacharya, the brother of Sayana, we get from 
other extracts : — 



Thus it is clear that this Chaundappa, the minister of Bukka II, 
could not be the father of Madhavamantrin, a general of Bukka I, who 
died in A.D. 1384. This Madhavamantrin cannot be the Vidyarany a 
described in the terms quoted above. The very terms in which 
Chaundappa refers to Vidyaranya unmistakably indicate Madhava- 
charya, the brother of Sayana, to be the Vidyaranya of tradition. 


The end of the first dynasty of Vijayanagar was almost coeval 
with the coming of the Portuguese on the West Coast. While we 
have so much information about the internal organization of 
Vijayanagar, we have had absolutely no information about any 
organization which the empire had for its foreign trade. The 
Haravilasam of Srinatha, who enjoyed the patronage of Deva Raya 
II and Sarvagna Singama, has an interesting statement regarding 
another patron of his, Avachi Tippayya Setti of Nellore (Vikrama 
Simhapura). This Setti, to whom Srinatha dedicates his work, 
had his own ships and traded overseas on his own account. He 
imported horses from Ormuz, elephants from Ceylon, camphor from 
the Punjab, fine silks, from China, various other articles from places 
which are not yet capable of identification. He enjoyed the 
monopoly for the supply of the articles in demand at the courts of 
Harihara II, PlrOz-shah Bhamani and Kumaragiri Reddi of Konda- 
vldu. The arrangement for provision and protection of private 
trade like this, detailed in Marco Polo and in the Motupalli in- 
scription of the KakatTya king Ganapati, seems to have continued 


The next item of information calling for remark in this collec- 
tion is the existence of a Vijayanagar governorship at Vinikonda, 
a railway station south-west of Guntiir in latitude little beyond 16^ 
and longitude 79® 30". The translation of a kind of Sanskrit 
drama called * Premabhiramam ' into Telugu under the name of 


* Kridabhiramam ' was made by one Vallabha Raya who calls him- 
self the Governor of Vinikonda. He gives a number of details 
about his ancestors who were all officers of distinction under the 
predecessors of Deva Raya 11. He himself was the Governor of 
Vinikonda and enjoyed the revenues of certain villages as salary 
of the office. 

This seems the first instance of a governorship in this particular 
frontier under Vijayanagar. It was under Sultan Firoz of the 
Bhamani kingdom that the effective conquest of the territories of 
Warrangal was undertaken by the Bahmani Sultans. This vigor- 
ous policy was continued by his two successors, Sultans Ahmad 
and Allau-d-din. The transfer of capital from Gulburga to Bidar, 
otherwise called AhWiadabad-Bidar, seems to have been done 
with the same object. Allau-d-din's wars against his Muhamma- 
dan neighbours of Khandesh and Malwa and sometimes even of 
Gujarat, almost undid the work of his predecessors in the east. 
When he felt himself free to adopt a vigorous policy in the east, 
he found the work too much for him single-handed, and he had to 
call in the assistance of Orissa, now coming into prominence under 
Kapilesvara Gajapati. This alliance it was that gave possession 
of the Telingana coast to the monarch of Orissa while the Bah- 
mani Sultans themselves had to remain content with that part of 
Warrangal which was within the eastern frontier of the present 
Nizam's dominions. This advance of Orissa accounts for the loss 
of the influence of the Reddi chiefs who regarded themselves 
politically independent of all suzerain authority. 


With the death of Deva Raya II a dark half-century sets in and 
all the information we had hitherto of this period was based on a 
few inscriptions and the confused accounts in the Portuguese 
chronicles, which only contributed to make the confusion worse 
confounded. An interesting extract from a contemporary Sanskrit 
drama called the ' Gangadasapratapavilasam ', of which we have 
so far only the rather full abstract of Professor Eggeling in part 7 
(No. 1610) of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the India Office Library, 
throws the much needed light upon this dark point. So far as is 
known at present this is the only work which gives a specific 
reference to a joint invasion of Vijayanagar by the Bahmani Sultan 
and the Gajapati king of Orissa. The death of the great mon- 
arch was taken advantage of by these two rulers to carry their 


expansion southwards, Orissa along the Telingana coast and the 
Bahmani Sultan over the rest of the frontier of Vijayanagar. The 
invasion was obviously beaten off as the extract says, and Malli- 
karjuna, the son of Deva Raya, succeeded to the throne. But the 
danger from Orissa continued to be real and it had very important 
consequences. The aggressiveness of Orissa is seen in the claim 
made in behalf of the Gajapatisof a successful advance by them as 
far as Kanchi, in a dramatic romance called ' Kanji-KSveri-Pothi.' 
It is this successful aggression on the part of Orissa that gave the 
occasion for Saluva Narasimha to build up his power and ulti- 
mately to occupy the imperial throne. 


Who succeeded Mallikarjuna after his comparatively short rule, 
and what exactly was the nature of the succession, have been 
problems for which an answer seemed till lately impossible to 
attempt. One of the extracts given from the ' Prapannamrtam * 
read in the light of the SrTsailam plates inscription (published as 
an appendix to my article on Virupaksha II of Vijayanagar in the 
Bhandarkar Commemoration Volume) from which an extract is 
also given, makes it quite clear now that Virupaksha usurped the 
throne. He succeeded his elder brother by setting aside his two 
nephews of whom we have had a few inscriptions all along. 
There is the further information in the extract that either on the 
occasion of the usurpation, or more probably a little later, he per- 
petrated a massacre of all those near enough to him to set up a 
counter-claim, a very faint glimmering of which we find in the 
Portuguese chronicles themselves. It is this usurpation that must 
have compelled Saluva Narasimha to decide upon usurping the 
empire, and given him the necessary moral support of the other 
chieftains of the empire. There is a statement in the extract 
which is worth noting here : VirUpaksha, in gratitude for the 
raising of the ghosts that afflicted him, as the result of the devo- 
tioiTal reading of the Ramayana in his behalf by EttQr Narasimha- 
charya, changed his sign-manual from Sri VirUpaksha of this 
dynasty to * Srirama ' which may partially explain the appearance 
of this sign-manual in some ot the later inscriptions. 


There is one interesting extract from a professedly historical 
work known as * RamarajTyamu ' of which an edition was issued 


by Dr. Oppert though the book has been for some time out of print. 
A number of historical passages are extracted in the course of this 
collection as the historical matter in it has not been properly 
exploited till now. The extract under reference here relates to the 
period of the first dynasty, and refers to the ancestor of the 
famous brothers who lost the battle of Talikota. He is called 
Somadeva Raja and was the fifth ancestor of Araviti Bukka who 
was one of the officers of Saluva Narasimha and the great-grand- 
father of Rama Raya who fell in the battle of Talikota. This 
Somadeva among his many achievements is said to have fought 
against the Muhammadan ruler Muhammad and taken him prisoner. 
It is he that is credited with the capture of seven forts rhetorically 
described as having been taken in a day. The importance of this 
consists in the explanation that this provides for certain ex- 
pressions occurring in epigraphical records the meaning of which 
has been much misunderstood. The capture of the seven forts is a 
fact, and perhaps the capture was made in one campaign. The 
campaign was in all probability against Muhammad Shah I, 


The next following group of extracts all relate to Saluva Nara- 
simha and throw considerable light upon the course of Saluva 
Narasimha's rise in the Empire of Vijayanagar. The chief place 
is to be given to the yet unpublished work ' Saluva-abhyudayam ' 
of which so far only one manuscript is available, which is itself in 
a condition hardly suitable for publication. This throws much 
needed light upon this dark period of Vijayanagar history, and 
gives a clear idea of the circumstances that led to Saluva Nara- 
simha's usurpation. We already referred to a joint invasion of 
Vijayanagar by the Bahmani Sultan and Kapilesvara Gajapati of 
Orissa, immediately after the death of Deva Raya II. That seems 
to have been the beginning of the southward march of the 
Gajapati ruler who had won the mastery over the Telingana coast. 
Though beaten off from the walls of Vijayanagar by Mallikarjuna, 
the successor of Deva Raya II, the Gajapatis extended their con- 
quests southwards. When Saluva Narasimha appears on the 
scene, we find the Gajapati already in effective possession of the 
Nellore district, giving his boasted advance upon Kanchi, a 
historical foundation. The whole of the region between Kanchi 
and Rajahmundri was in the possession of the Orissa monarch and 
Saluva Narasimha's first service to the empire was the beating 


back of this enemy right up to Rajahmundri where the Bahmani 
Sultan, Muhammad, found him strongly entrenched in one of his 
campaigns. As the 'Burhan-i-Ma'sir' puts it, when the army 
arrived in the neighbourhood of the fortress of Rajahmundri, 
"they saw an immense city, and on the farther side of the river 
the infidel Narasimha Raya with 700,000 cursed infantry, 8,500 
I " elephants like mountains of iron, had taken his stand. On this 
side of the river he had dug a deep ditch, on the edge of which he 
had built a wall like the rampart of Alexander, and filled it with 
cannon and guns, and all the apparatus of war." The date of this 
is 1474-5. This position of Saluva Narasimha makes it clear 
that his operations against the Gajapati were crowned with 
success. It is not likely that he made any further advance into 
the Gajapati's territory proper. Daring the same period of time 
he also brought under his influence several of the provinces of the 
empire in the middle and in the west, without his action being 
called in question from headquarters, or meeting with serious 
opposition from the governors themselves. Such a state of things 
is a sure indication of the unpopularity of the imperial head- 
quarters as the extract from the Prapannamrtam, regarding 
Virupaksha, shows. He began with his ancestral Chandragiri, 
took possession of Udayagiri, which was the headquarters of an 
early viceroyalty, and a number of other possessions up to the 
frontier of the Godavari. He is then said in these extracts to have 
mastered possession of Penukonda, Kongu, Dharapuram, Gingi. 
His inscriptions are found scattered across the region extending 
from Chandragiri to Nagamangala, not far from Seringapatam. 
The usurpation merely completes this gradual acquisition of power 
and position. For further information relating to this dark period 
reference may be made to my * A Little Known Chapter of 
Vijayanagar History.' 


Among the distinguished generals who were the companions of 
Saluva Narasimha in all his early campaigns that ultimately led 
him to the empire, there figured four men most prominently; they 
are Araviti Bukka and his son Rama, and fevara Nayaka and his 
son Narasa. All these four distinguished themselves in the 
campaigns of Narasimha against the last great Bahmani Sultan 
Muhammad of Bidar. The youngest of all the four probably was 
Narasa, and he is certainly the most distinguished among those 
that served Sajuva Narasimha. Narasa had his baptism of fire in 

Introduction 9 

a battk against the Sultan of Bidar referred to in Telugu works, as 
Bedanda-Kota where the brunt of the fighting on the side of 
Vijayanagar appears to have fallen on his father Isvara. In 
various works, both Sanskrit and Telugu, which describe the 
campaigns in which he played any part, the general order 
observed seems to be that adopted in the Sanskrit work called 
Varadambika-Parinayam compiled in honour of Achyuta Raya's 
marriage with Varadamba or Varadambika. The poem seems the 
earliest composed among the works dedicated to Achyuta Raya, 
as it stops short soon after the birth of his son, whereas the 
Achyuta-Raya-abhyudayam begins with his coronation, when 
that son was anointed in the Yauva-Rajya (heir apparentcy) at the 
same time. This authority may be followed as being the nearest 
to Narasa, among the works that describe his early career. After 
the affair against the Sultan of Bidar, he is said to have carried on 
the campaign against the Telugu country. This was very likely 
in the company of Saluva Narasimha against the Gajapati of 
Kalinga and the Bahmani Sultan in the north. Then he is said to 
have gone to the south against the Chola country. It may be that 
in this part of the campaign as well he accompanied his master, 
but there are specific achievements ascribed to him in this 
campaign which are not mentioned in the various accounts relating 
to Saluva Narasimha. He is said to have marched against 
Madura, defeated the Chola, perhaps killed a Pandya, who is 
called Manabhusha in one, and simply Marava in another. He is 
then said to have marched northwards to Seringapatam where he 
defeated the Heuna, governor or general, at the place, and took 
possession of the island, having constructed a bridge, when the 
river was in floods, to cross it. He is then said to have marched 
westwards from there through a few places which are not identi- 
fiable, to Gokarna on the West Coast. His having gone to 
Ramesvaram might have been in the company of Saluva Nara- 
simha or by himself alone. According to the order of campaigns 
set forth in this account he must have been on the banks of the 
Godavari in 1475 with his master. It may be then that he marched 
southwards in the company of his master. The circumstances 
necessitating a campaign against Madura must then have arisen, 
and he must have been deputed on that commission. 

Since the campaign of Kumara Kampana, Madura seems to 
have been at least nominally under the empire. The two famous 
brothers Lakkanna and Madanna were respectively governors of 
Madura and the Chola country under Dgva Raya II. The former 


had for his sphere of office ' the Lordship of the Southern Ocean * 
along with the governorship of Madura when he was promoted 
from the middle division, Deva Raya's brother-in-law Saluva 
Tippa taking his place there. What happened in the Pandya 
country after Lakkanna left Madura to go to headquarters is not 
quite clear. There are inscriptions of a few chieftains whose 
titles were Vanadi Rayar and their inscriptions range from A.D. 
1453 to 1476 or thereabouts. In all likelihood the province of 
Madura was organized by Lakkanna, and these Bana chieftains 
whose original homes should have been in the North Afcot district 
were put in charge of various localities as sub-governors under 
him. They perhaps attempted to make themselves indepen- 
dent when the troubles in the empire assumed great dimensions 
under Virupaksha. It may be something like this that called for 
the active intervention of the imperial general Narasa Nayaka. 
There is another alternative possible ; it may be that the Pandyas, 
who had practically retired into the Tinnevelly district by now, 
attempted to regain their former position in the Madura district. 
This would account for the defeat of the Pandya king Manabhusha 
as some of the inscriptions state. We have a Manabharana among 
the Pandyans whose descendants were associated with Tenkasi, 
a city founded by one of them. What provision he made for carry- 
ing on the administration of Madura after he left, we have no 
means of knowing. But obviously there was no trouble in that 
frontier till we come to late in the reign of Krishnadeva Raya. 
After the progress through Seringapatam to Gokarnam, is described 
in some detail, the campaign against Suratrana (Sultan) at a place 
called in Sanskrit Manavadurga (Manvi in the territory of Bijapur). 
This seems to be a campaign against the Adil Shah of Bijapur. 
This is the last warlike achievement of Narasa after which he is 
said to have entered Vijayanagar. This is in all probability the 
campaign undertaken by Narasa as Regent against Yusuf Adil 
Shah immediately after the death of Saluva Narasimha in A.D. 
1493. Even inscriptions do not seem to mention any campaign in 
which he took part after this year. Narasa's warlike life seems to 
begin in the fifties of the 15th century and takes him through all 
the campaigns of his master Saluva Narasimha, and one great 
campaign which included Madura, Seringapatam and the West 
Coast by himself alone, before we come to his last war as Regent 
of Vijayanagar. While the details are abundant, we have as yet 
no means of arranging them in any chronological order with 
absolute certainty, so far as this particular portion is concerned. 



The next group of extracts bear upon the reign of the greatest 
ruler of Vijayanagar, Krishnadeva Raya. His rule made cuch an 
impression upon the people that his name is handed down in tradi-_ 
tion as ' the king.' There is no need to discuss the extracts in 
detail in this introduction as the matter is fully treated in my 
published paper on this subject. It would be enough to point out 
here that these together correct in many essential particulars the 
Portuguese chronicles on which Mr. Sewell mainly relied for his 
account of this great monarch. One extract from the ' Parijatapa- 
haranam* makes the relation clear between the rebellion of 
Ganga Raja of Ummattur and the capture of Sivasamudram. The 
hitherto not well exploited ' Krishna Raya Vijayam ' and the 
' Rayava chakamu ' throw much light upon the actual cause of 
Krishna Raya's campaign against Orissa. What is more, the 
statement in the Prabodha Chandrodaya Vyakhya of Nadindla 
Gopa, a nephew of Krishna's chief minister Saluva Timma, makes 
it absolutely certain that Krishna Deva did marry the Gajapati 
Pratapa Rudra's daughter, a marriage on which some doubts were 
cast, not altogether without reason. The fact that the other two 
queens figure prominently in some of the records of the reign, 
while the Orissa princess figures nowhere, lends colour to the 
tradition that she was neglected. We cannot at this distance of 
time say why. The five stanzas ascribed to her are included in 
this collection for whatever historical value they may have. All 
that is said in the Portuguese chronicles of the last ten years of 
the reign of Krishna Deva Raya, it is to be regretted, we have no 
means of checking from literary sources, though the large number 
of inscriptions of this monarch makes it clear that the chroniclers 
had not access to unimpeachable sources of information. Krishna 
Raya was a great patron of letters and himself somewhat of a 
voluminous writer. There are only two works of his , howeveri that 
have come down to us, the Telugu Amuktamalyada and the Sans- 
krit drama * JambavatT Kalyanam ', from both of which short 
extracts are given. 


With the death of Krishna Raya we come upon a period which 
is anything but clear to the historian. Krishna died in 1530 and 
was succeeded by his surviving brother Achyuta. According to 
the Achyuta-Raya-abhyudayam he succeeded without any trouble 


and had himself anointed at Tirupati, quite close to Chandragiri, 
where he was at the time. His uterine brother Ranga seems to 
have died by this time, leaving a son who later on ascended the 
throne as Sadasiva. Achyuta himself had been a married man for 
some time, and had a son old enough to be installed as Yuva Raja 
on the occasion of his coronation. His name is given in the manu- 
script part of the work referred to above, as Venkata. Though 
Nuniz was a contemporary of Achyuta and was actually in Vijaya- 
nagar in Achyuta's reign, what he has to say of this reign is so 
utterly confused that it is difficult to say whether any reliance can 
be placed on his account at all. According to the Achyuta-Raya- 
abhyudayam, Achyuta was anything but a coward. The first 
affair to draw his attention was a rebellion in the middle of the 
empire. A certain governor who seems to have attained to rank 
and influence in the reign of Krishna Deva Raya rose in rebellion. 
This person seems to have enjoyed the title of Saluva Nayaka and 
is described by the name Vira Narasimha Raya. He is described 
in one of his records as the son of a Taluva Kulaindan Bhattar, and 
seems to have gone by the familiar name of Sellappa (the pet one 
or the dear one) Sanskritised in the above work as Chellappa. 
Achyuta marched against him soon after his coronation. Why 
Vira Narasimha revolted and why he fled for protection to the 
Travancore country, and when actually the rebellion took place, 
are matters which it would be of the utmost importance to 
definitely settle in the history of this transaction. All that the 
poem says is that this Chellappa, the Governor of the Chola 
country, created trouble, and when he was defeated in the field, 
fled for protection to the Travancore country (Tiruvadi Rajyam). 
A Pandya seems to have carried the complaint to Achyuta who 
himself marched at the head of his army on this mission to SrT- 
rangam. While in camp there his brother-in-law volunteered to go 
forward and carry the enterprise to a successful conclusion if 
Achyuta would only consent to give him the commission. This 
brother-in-law Salaka Raju Timma Raju marched to the Tiruvadi 
country, defeated the king who gave asylum to the rebel and 
returned to Srlrangam, bringing as prisoners Vira Narasimha 
and the Tiruvadi Raja himself. This is the transaction as it is 
described in the Sanskrit epic under reference. 
R.. 1908- The epigraphical records of Vira Narasimha range between 
>p. I 4-5- j^jQ ^^^ J J28, and he seems to have been one of the trusted officers 
of Krishna-deva-Raya occupying a very high and responsible 
position in the heart of the empire. Why he should have taken a 


sudden fancy to revolt, and flee for protection to Travancore after 
being defeated in the field, does not appear anywhere. Tradition, 
as embodied in the Mackenzie records, says that during the last 
years of Krishna's reign, one of the foremost of his generals was 
governing in the Pandya country, having gradually dispossessed 
the titular Pandyan of his territory. The dispossessed Paiidyan is 
said to have carried a complaint to Krishna-deva-Raya himself that 
Nagama Nayaka, who was sent to help him against his Chola rival 
Vira Sekhara, had by slow steps superseded him in authority, 
making the Pandya kingdom his own. Krishna then called for 
volunteers to go on this expedition, from among the most valiant of 
his generals, and Nagama's young son Visvanatha volunteered his 
services to go and defeat his father, and bring the head of the rebel 
to the king. Having obtained the commission, the story goes on 
to say, Visvanatha defeated his father and returned to the capital 
bringing Nagama as prisoner with him. If this embodies correct 
tradition, and if Achyuta Raya's invasion at the request of a 
Pandya king took place immediately after his coronation, it is 
likely that Vlra Narasimha's revolt has some connexion with 
Nagama's disobedience. The truth seems to be, both Nagama 
and Vlra Narasimha were masterful men who carried on their 
administration in a thorough-going fashion, making encroach- 
ments upon the sovereigns of the localities still left with petty 
possessions of proud kingdoms, showing by their acts a tendency 
to set up kingdoms if the headquarters showed weakness. If 
Krishna sent a punitive expedition against Nagama in Madura 
near the close of his reign, he might have sent a similar one against 
the rebel Vlra Narasimha Raya as well. It was probably an 
expedition like that which defeated the powerful governor who fled 
for safety to the Travancore country. He could not, however, be 
allowed to remain there to work further mischief, and Achyuta's 
expedition might have been in continuation of what Krishna Raya 

While it seems very probable that the last years of king 
Krishna were troubled with these rebellions which the great 
monarch manfully struggled to bring under control with considera- 
ble success, the invasion of Achyuta after Krishna's death and the 
restoration of the Pandyan monarch which the poem records, seem 
apparently to go against the foundation of the Nayakship of 
Madura by Visvanatha. Visvanatha is generally recognized as the 
founder of the Nayak kingdom of Madura, and Nelson, when he 
wrote the Manual of the Madura country, found the most convenient 


time for this achievement of Vi^vanatha in A.D. 1 559. Whatever 
excuse Nelson might have had for doing so, those that have followed 
him blindly had some material before them to consider whether 
this dating of Nelson could be reconciled with the facts which 
have since become accessible. Without going into a full discus- 
sion of the matter, we might state it here that Nagama was an 
officer of reputation in Vijayanagar already in the days of 
Saluva Narasimha. There are inscriptions (No. 318 of 1909, 
Madras Epig. Col.) that make him the foremost general of the 
time. He must have been a very old man under Krishna, and 
the description which tradition gives of him as embodied in 
the various records agrees with this position of his, as we make 
out from his inscriptions. Visvanatha was appointed governor 
in succession to his father according to the same tradition. 
If this were true what is his position in relation to Achyuta and 
what actually did happen to him as a result of Achyuta's invasion 
of the Pandya and Travancore country } What again was his 
position in the period intervening Achyuta's invasion and the end 
of the period of Rama Raja Vittala's activity in that part of the 
country } We shall consider these questions later. Returning to 
Achyuta, he set forward to his capital from Srirangam, and went 
to Seringapatam on the way. Starting from there again, he 
marched across his territory to Raichur. Raichur seems by now to 
have passed into the hands of the Adil Shah and Achyuta had to lay 
siege to it. The poem, Achyuta-Raya-abhyudayam, gives him credit 
for a victory, and ascribes to the Adil Shah an abject submission. 
This statement of the poem finds support in an inscription (No. 47 
of 1900), dated A.D. 1534, according to which Achyuta Raya made 
a grant for the merit of his mother, while encamped on the banks 
of the Krishna river. So far then Achyuta shows himself quite a 
worthy successor of king Krishna-deva-Rsya. Some change 
obviously comes over him now, and the rest of his reign is one of 
internal trouble and confusion, if we are to take the account of 
Nuniz and Ferishta which alone are the sources of information 
available to us. 

About this time it is quite likely that the two brothers-in-law 
both of them called Tirumala, distinguished Pedda (elder) and 
Pinna (younger) sons of Salaka Raju, and brothers of the Queen 
Varadamba, seem to have become prominent in the administration 
of the empire. It is the advent of these officers to high position at 
court that seems to have carried with it the seed of all the trouble. 
All that we are able to see from the traditions that have come down 


to us is that these brothers concentrated all power in their hands 
and created for themselves a powerful opposition which centred 
round the family of the late monarch Krishna. The two queens of 
the late monarch appear to have been yet alive, and wielded some 
influence at court. Achyuta's nephew Sadasiva seems to have had 
their support. These queens had each one a daughter according to 
these accounts, who were married respectively to Rama Raja and 
Tirumala, two among the three famous brothers who fought the 
battle of Talikota. These last belong to an influential family 
themselves, were sons-in-law of the late great king and had a 
counter-claimant to the throne under their influence. Thus there 
were all the necessary elements for internecine quarrels ready to 
hand. If Achyuta continued personally to exercise his authority 
vigorously as he did in the first years of his reign, he might have 
kept these disturbing elements under control. Whether he actually 
did so is very doubtful from the glimpses that we are able to get of 
the latter half of his reign. Both Nuniz and Ferishta record an 
invasion of Vijayanagar itself by the Adil Shah. If that could be 
taken for a fact, that is certain evidence of disaffection on the part 
of the three brothers, the cause of which could only be the abdi- 
cation of all direct authority by Achyuta Raya himself and the 
unpopularity of his brothers-in-law in the exercise of that authority. 
More than that it would be difficult to say from the material at our 
disposal. In all probability these brothers had to bide their time 
till Achyuta should die. Achyuta's son naturally succeeded, his 
uncles continuing to exercise all real authority. Among them the 
elder who appears to have been the one more directly implicated, 
got rid of his nephew by assassination. That was the signal for 
the brothers to throw off the mask, put their own candidate Sada. 
^iva on the throne and carry on the administration in their turn for 
Sada^iva. Finding himself unequal to the three brothers, the elder 
Tirumala who is described as a mad man, invited his Muhammadan 
neighbours to his assistance- According to the annals of Hande 
Anantapura, the three brothers overpowered the mad man first, and 
killed him, and marched forward to meet the allied Sultans of 
Ahmadnagar, Bidar and Golkonda. Having defeated them in the 
field the brothers returned to headquarters and installed Sada4iva 
duly as the Emperor. 


The whole group of extracts relating to these two fall into three 
divisions, not in the arrangement of order or chronology, but in 


respect of their subject matter. One group of them refers to Rama 
Raya's wars against Salakam Timma Raju, the brother-in-law of 
Achyuta, and the installing of Sadasiva on the throne. Our author- 
ities only mention, as usual without date, that Rama Raya and his 
brothers retired to Gutti (Gooty) out of dissatisfaction with the 
management of affairs at headquarters by Salakam Timma. Adoni, 
Gooty, Penukonda, Gandikota, Kandanol (Kurnool) were the districts 
where they found the most support. Having gathered such forces 
as they were able to raise in these districts which seem to have 
been all along their special charge, they marched upon Vijaya- 
nagar, defeated Timma Raju outside the capital, and entering the 
city installed Sadasiva on the throne of Vijayanagar. 

That done, they had to march forward to meet the allied armies 
of Ahmadnagar, Bidar and Golkonda, and beat them back from 
the territories^of Vijayanagar to which they had marched, as was 
stated in the previous section, on the invitation of Timma the Mad. 
This is the beginning of a series of wars with the Muhammadans, a 
number of which are described in some detail, both in the * Rama 
rajTyamu ' and the other works from which extracts are made. 
The three brothers Rama, Tirumala and Venkata, the four sons of 
the first, two sons of the next and at least two nephews of these 
brothers, all of these figure in the various engagements against one 
or other or all of these Sultans in combination. The localities 
mentioned are all of them either on the northern frontier of 
Vijayanagar or within the territories of these Sultans. Though by 
themselves their historical value may not be very much, they are of 
very great value read in combination withFerishta for this period. 
It is hardly necessary to go into a detailed investigation in this 

The only other matter of importance calling for notice here is 
the expedition sent out under Rama Raju Vittala and Tirumala 
(usually known Chinna Timma) to the south. The two leaders were 
first cousins of Rama Raja and are said in the contemporary 
sources to have marched successfully across the Chola and the 
Pandya countries into Travancore. They are given credit for 
having set up a pillar of victory on the Tamraparni and even to 
have sent out an invasion to Ceylon. These documents do not 
enlighten us as to what exactly was the important cause that called 
for this imposing expedition within a decade of the more or less 
similar expedition undertaken at the beginning of the reign of 
Achyuta Raya. It is possible to suggest two causes of vital import- 
ance to the Empire. The accession of Sadasiva to the throne 


coincided almost with the extraordinarily successful effort of the 
sovereign of Travancore, Udaya Martanda Varman to extend his 
dominion across the peninsula. He had established himself so far 
successfully in the south that he held Kayal on the fishery coast 
in his possession and appointed a viceroy. This hemmed in the 
Pandya feudatories of the Empire, who, since the advent of the 
Vijayanagar authority in the south, had retired to the western parts 
of the Tinnevelly district and had broken up into five compara- 
tively petty chieftaincies. Imperial intervention might have been 
called for in their behalf. The next cause is the politically dis- 
integrating activity of the Portuguese government and the mission- 
aries on the pearl fishery coast, the industrious inhabitants of 
which were being converted to Christianity in large numbers under 
pressure of circumstances, which conversion appears to have been 
held to imply a transfer of political allegiance to the Portuguese- 
The expedition must have been somewhat thorough-going in its 
operations. The conquest and the organization of the territory 
under a vigorous and more satisfactory administration required the 
presence of these princes of the Empire for more than ten years in 
the far south. 

During the interval between the death of Krishna Deva Raya, 
just before which we already stated the foundation was laid of the 
Nayakship of Madura under Visvanatha, and the termination of 
office of Pinna Timma, what exactly was the position of Visvanatha 
and his successor does not appear to be specifically defined any- 
where in the available sources. The course of this dark period of 
history seems to have run somewhat as follows in respect of the 
foundation of the dynasty of the Nayakas of Madura. Inscriptions 
up to A.D. 1528 (Saka 1450) show that Vira Narasimha Raya held 
the position of governor of the south. He must have revolted soon 
after, being defeated and turned out of the country in consequence. 
As he found asylum in Travancore Achyuta Raya had to undertake 
a war against that country. We have already pointed out that in 
all probability Nagama Nayaka had been sent to Madura before 
this, and had made an attempt to secure himself there, with a view 
ultimately to attain to independence. He was defeated by his son 
Visvanatha who in turn was appointed Governor of Madura. This 
dignity of the Governorship of Madura for Visvanatha Nayaka 
could not have carried with it the freedom of action that the 
greater governors or viceroys enjoyed. If Visvanatha was a gover- 
nor he must have played a very subordinate part in Salaka Raju 
Timma's campaign in Travancore. He must have played the same 


part in the still greater campaign carried on by Rama Raju Vittala 
and his brother in the same region. What is more, during the period 
of little more than a decade when Chinna Timma was actively 
organizing the province of Madura, Vi^vanStha must have played 
the same subordinate role. His son KumSra Krishnappa it is likely 
bore his own share in these campaigns as his name is mentioned 
in inscriptions (417 of 1905, Mad. Epi. Rep.), Thus while on the one 
side the comparatively subordinate position of Visvanatha is made 
clear, the great probability of Visvanatha having been governor of 
Madura during this period is also established. This position of 
his, finds confirmation in a few inscriptions which mention his 
name specifically as Visvanatha Nayaka, son of Nagama Nayaka, 
of dates A.D. 1535 and 1560 (113 of 1908, Mad. Epi. Rep. ; Sewell's 
Lists of Antiquities, \,2Qi^, hx^XiVSViX). The conclusion seems there- 
fore warranted that the foundation of the Nayakship of Madura 
under ViSvanatha has to go back to a date at least a quarter of a 
century earlier, may be about thirty years. The date A.D. 1559 
given by Nelson may have now to be definitely abandoned. 

The extracts under this head give a number of details in regard 
to the campaigns of Rama Raya against the Muhammadans which 
ultimately brought about the epoch-making battle of TalikOta. It 
would be far too elaborate to deal with this matter in this intro- 
duction. It would be enough for our purpose to say here that in 
the battle of Talikota, all the three brothers Rama, Tirumala and 
Venkatadri fought. Rama was undoubtedly killed, and Tirumala 
lost one of his eyes which Caesar Frederick has noted. This detail 
is referred to very cleverly in a verse-extract in Telugu which 
addresses the king saying " You are God Siva himself when you 
sit along with your wife and you are Sukracharya seated alone, 
being in either case the * all knowing ' (Sarvagna) ". The point of 
the joke consists in this. The comparison is to two people who 
are all-wise, which is the compliment the author obviously in- 
tended to pay. ^iva and his wife constitute one body with the 
ordinary two eyes and the third eye in the forehead peculiar to 
Siva, Tirumala having only one eye and his wife two. Sukra 
was blinded of one eye when he attempted to prevent Mahabali 
from gifting away the three feet of earth prayed for by the dwarf 


It was the next brother of Rama that succeeded him in the 
administration, Sadasiva continuing to be the ruler in name. 


Tirumala was as much of a scholar as a general. He seems to 
have removed the capital definitely from Vijayanagar to Penu- 
konda, where he had to withstand an attack by the Muhammadans 
whom, according to these authorities, he succeeded in ultimately 
beating off. He was able to hand down the empire intact, though 
in so doing he appears unwittingly to have sowed the seed of its 
dismemberment. Of his four sons, three were alive, the eldest of 
whom Sriranga succeeded him in the Empire, Sadasiva being no 
more. The next son Rama was appointed to the Viceroyalty of 
Seringapatam and the last Venkatapati was given charge of 
Madura and the other viceroyalties with headquarters at Chandra- 
giri. Sriranga had like his father to stand a siege in Penukonda 
by the Sultan of Golconda, possibly with the assistance of one or 
more of his brother Sultans. In the course of the wars connected 
with this, he was defeated, and he fell a prisoner into the hands 
of the Muhammadans. In consequence of this misfortune, the 
Muhammadans were able to gain effective possession of the 
territory north of Penukonda. This happened about the year 
1579-80. One of the consequences of this misfortune was the 
second change of capital from Penukonda, this time to Chandra- 
giri. The general course of history following this war is that 
Sriranga died in 1586 leaving no children. Rama seems to have 
died in Seringapatam a little before Sriranga, leaving two sons, 
the elder of whom was still too young to take his place. So the 
empire became united under Venkatapati who ruled from 1586 to 
1614 from Chandragiri as his capital. Tirumala, his young nephew 
of Seringapatam was sent to put down a rebellion in Madura, who 
rewarded his uncle's confidence by practical defection to the 
enemy with whom he came to an understanding and retired to his 
viceroyalty of Seringapatam, where he tried to set up independ- 
ently. This defection met its reward about the year 1610, when 
he fell ill of a serious disease. One of the smaller chieftains under 
the viceroyalty. Raja Wodeyar of Mysore, laid siege to Seringa- 
patam and captured it. He got himself confirmed in the possession 
of the viceroyalty by a grant that he obtained from Venkatapati 
Raya, the Emperor, in A.D. l6l2. This was the first province 
effectively lost to the empire through defection. Venkatapati 
seems energetically to have asserted his authority over the 
southern provinces till his death in 1614 when he was succeeded 
by an adopted son of his, Sriranga, generally known as Chikka 




This was the second son of Rama, and the younger brother of 
the Viceroy of Seringapatam. He seems to have been adopted for 
succession by Venkatapati and thus became heir to the empire 
with consequences tragic in the extreme. One of the queens of 
Venkatapati pretended to have a son who was a lad probably old 
enough to succeed, but perhaps Venkatapati was aware of the 
truth and adopted the course that he did. The Ramarajlyamu 
which is circumstantial in regard to the other queens of Venkata- 
pati, does not give the parentage of one of them who goes 
by the name Venkatamma. It is just possible that she was the 
queen designated Bayamma by Barrados, as any lady could be 
called Bayamma in Telugu. The accession of this ill-fated 
SrTranga II at once threw the empire into two hostile sections, one 
loyalist and the other traitor to the empire. It is hardly necessary 
to repeat the story of the massacre of the royal family at the 
instance of one Jagga Raya, either the brother-in-law or the 
father-in-law of the late king Venkatapati. One child out of the 
royal family, by name Rama, was smuggled out before the massacre 
at the instance of the loyalist Yachama Nayaka, the founder of the 
Venkatagiri family. Practically all the other chieftains of the 
empire ranged themselves on the side of the traitor with the 
exception of the Nayaka of Tanjore. Yachama had to fight single 
handed against Jagga Raya and his confederates, and was able to 
beat a successful retreat with the prince in his possession to the 
Court of Tanjore, where after his arrival and having regard to the 
forthcoming war, the old Nayaka Achyuta abdicated in favour of 
his son Raghunatha. Raghunatha assumed power, and having 
disposed of his other enemies such as the cruel Solaga, who had 
his stronghold on an island at the mouth of the Coleroon, and the 
Feringhis of Ceylon (Portuguese) who took possession of Jaffna, was 
ready to meet his enemies marching rapidly to Srlrangam to effect 
a junction with the Nayak of Madura before advancing upon 
Tanjore. Information came to Raghunatha that they had cut open 
the Grand Anicut and were awaiting perhaps to cross the river to 
effect the junction. Raghunatha marched at once, met the enemy 
at TOpQr (now TohQr) not far from the Grand Anicut, and defeated 
them completely. The traitor Jagga Raya fell in battle and the 
imperial fugitive was raised to the throne as Rama II. 

We have already stated, in the section immediately preceding, 
that with the exception of Yachama Nayaka and his cousins, and 


Raghunatha Nayaka of Tanjore, all the more important chieftains 
of the empire had banded themselves together on the side of the 
traitor Jagga Raya. Though the battle actually went against 
Jagga who fell in the course of the engagement, the empire 
did not return to its normal condition. A series of campaigns 
were required to defeat the several enemies, and a number 
of actions took place between the loyalist chieftains and one 
or other of the confederates. The Muhammadans on the 
northern frontier did not fail to take advantage of the bad 
plight of the empire, and kept constantly harassing the northern 
frontiers of it. Even Venkatapati Raya himself in his last 
days found his position in Chandragiri dangerous. This might 
have been the cause .that led to Chenna, the brother-in-law 
of Yachama Nayaka, going to war with Linga of Velur. Chenna 
took possession of the fort in behalf of his master. Velur seems 
thenceforward to have become the actual capital of the Vijayana- 
gar Empire. Some of Chenna's sons attained to considerable 
distinction ; one of them Venkata distinguished himself in the 
wars against the Nayakas of Gingi and constructed a tank in the 
North Arcot district, which he named Chenna Sagaram after his 
father. Another of his brothers Anka was a literary man, in 
addition to being perhaps a warrior also. One of his works has 
come down to us, ' Ushaparinayam ' by name. This gives us the 
interesting piece of information that the town of Madras was built 
by a half-brother of his, Ayyappa, who interposed this town 
between the Portuguese at Mylapore and the Dutch at Pulikat 
(Pralaya Kaveri) to prevent their constant quarrels on this bound- 
ary. He called the town Chennapatna in the name of his father. 
This Ayyappa lived on to make another exhTb it ion of his loyalty 
in behalf of Rama's successor Sriranga in a battle at Erode where 
a confederacy of Chokkanatha of Madura, the general of the 
Tanjore Nayak, this Ayyappa and one of the officers even of Bija- 
pur supported the claim of Sriranga against Mysore. Ayyappa 
fell in this battle. Sriranga had therefore to betake himself to the 
only other chieftain of the empire who was willing to help him, 
and that was the usurper Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri. Sivappa 
Nayaka had already rendered valuable service by compelling the 
enemies of Sriranga to raise the siege of Vellore which was the 
imperial capital at the time, and led an invasion in the name of 
Sriranga against Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. He was defeated 
at Hassan, and Sakkarepatna, and the result of this war was the 
extension of the Mysore boundary up to these places. Sriranga 


passes out of the scene unknown after this particular incident. 
The only other incident which might be said to belong to the 
history of Vijayanagar Empire is an invasion of the Mysore terri- 
tories by Kodanda Rama, a nephew of this Sriranga, the last scion 
of the imperial family of Vijayanagar so far known. He defeated 
in battle the army of the Raja of Mysore, at a place called Asana 
(Hassan) in Mysore. It was to him that the work Rama-rajlyamu 
or Narapativijayamu was dedicated. 

By this time, after a series of invasions both by Bijapur and by 
Golkonda, a considerable portion of what was Vijayanagar had 
passed into the hands of the Muhammadans. The southern inva- 
sions of these Bijapur Sultans were entrusted to Shajj, Sivaji's 
father, and Venkaji or Ekoji, Sivaji's brother. It is well known 
that both Gingi and Tanjore fell into the hands of the Mahrattas. 
The Mysore general who is said to have been defeated by Kodan- 
darama at Hassan was one by name Dalavay Kumarayya. He 
laid siege to Trichinopoly according to the Mackenzie MSS. and 
was defeated and driven into Mysore by the Mahratta armies of 
Sivaji and Ekoji of Gingi. By the time that Mysore had estab- 
lished itself firmly as an independent kingdom, the Vijayanagar 
Empire had passed out of existence. With the purchase of 
Bangalore from Ekoji by Chikka Deva Raya in 1687-8, the modern 
Mysore State comes into existence, the only part of the Empire 
of Vijayanagar which might lay claim to continue the traditions of 
Hindu rule. 


Besides the obvious value of these extracts to the historian of 
Vijayanagar, they throw considerable light upon the position of 
various subordinate families of the empire. It will be clear from 
them even to a casual reader that the imperial family and the 
subordinate chieftains alike, were patrons of literature both Sans- 
krit and Telugu. It is their extraordinarily liberal patronage of 
letters that gave a special stimulus to the development of later 
Sanskrit culture. It is hardly necessary to go into more detail in 
this introduction. The publication of this collection would, it is 
to be hoped, exhibit the Vijayanagar Empire in its proper setting 
in respect of its character and significance in the history of 
Hindu India. 




This very important historical poem was written by Ganga 
Devi, one of the wives of KamparSya, the son of the Emperor 
Bukka. It describes the achievements of her husband Kamparaya 
and narrates the history of his expedition to the south. Canto I of 
the book contains, after the usual invocation, a short description ot 
the capital city of Vijayanagar on the banks of the Tungabhadra 
with its suburb containing the temple of Virupaksha. Bukka was 
its ruler and he had several wives of whom Depayi was the 
favourite. Canto 11. Bukka had by his wife Depayi three sons, 
Kampana, Sangama and Kampana, the younger. Canto III. 
When the prince Kampana grew up to manhood his father Bukka 
advised him on the duties of royal princes and pointed out to him 
the work that lay before him. He asked Kampana to march 
against the Tun dlra country (Tondamandalam) and after defeating 
its ruler Champaraya to reduce Kanchi. After subduing the 
several " forest chiefs " (Vanyarajas, Tam. Kadavar) he was 
directed to proceed against the king of the Turushkas who had his 
headquarters at Madura. Kampana after this exhortation returned 
home having resolved on leading the expedition to the south. 
Canto IV. Kampa started upon his expedition to the south. He 
crossed the country of Karnata in five or six days and reached the 
town of Kantakanana (Ver. Mulvay or Mulbagal). Thence he 
started against Champa, crossed the Kshlratarangini (Palar) and 
made his camp at Virinchipuram. There the forces of the Dramida 
(Tamil) King (Champa Raya) opposed him. The forces of Champa 
Raya were defeated and fled for safety to their citadel, Rajagam- 
bhlram (? Padaividu). Kamparaya proceeded against that place 
also and laid siege to the fort. When pressed hard Champa sallied 
out of the fort sword in hand and there was a duel between him 
and Kampana. In the duel Champa was killed and Kamparaya 
proceeded to the town of Kanchi and stationed his forces there. 
Canto V. Kampana stayed in the town of Marakata (Virinchi- 
puram), and spent the rainy and winter seasons there. Canto VI 
describes the life of Kampana in camp. Canto VII describes some 
conversation between the prince and his consort Ganga, the 
authoress of the book, but the narrative is there broken as the 
portion of the manuscript at this point is lost. Canto VIII. A 
goddess appears before the prince Kampana and after describing 
to him the disastrous consequences of the Mussalman invasions 


of the south and the sad plight of the southern country and its 
temples, exhorts him to extirpate the invaders and restore the 
country to its ancient glory, presenting him at the same time with 
a divine sword. Kamparaya then proceeded against Madura and, 
in a battle, killed the Sultan ruling in the place. He then made 
grants to several temples. 

Here the manuscript breaks off. 

Canto L 

^^W\ m^PTPTm f^5r^Tl%rf m^^: I 

'TR^^FTcTl ^F^T ^^Tcfl ^W^^^^l II 
q'^^^I ^ff T'=qr 3T^^ 'ST^T^lf^rTt I 


Canto IL 

^TTI^fJ^^fHRTT^f ■ . . . . .1 



H^Tlf^^W ^J^'tcTiT^: ^T%H^RT T^^ljfrft^ II 
f^^l^^TR^T ^im^r\: ^4 rT^^^T^t ^f^^Fc^: II 
^qrn^c^'F^^^rTi^^TfTori f^fnrff ^R^^^ RiT^^ II 

Canto IV, 

HTMr^»q hCI^c^- ^^g^F^ ^l^\ II 

^'r^H^w^T^^q ^T^^g^^'T'n? II 

RR^?r5TTI^^qr^Tq ?^f^^iq II 


3Tc^5WFjfH?;'f Tim ^^'T^S'cT^ I 
55^m^Tml^ff[^IfL [%^Tc^ f^R^T: I 

^Tf^fl^qT ^Ti ^^m\ ^^^ifftTj .1 
5i9T5rfi-Hfi^Tc^: ^^^w^ ?^Tt^R: ii 

^m^^TR^mi^f m-q^cTiN^'JTJi ii 

fret ^f T'lfS =q'=q^Rm i?fif^T^*-?I ^m 

• This inscription does not appear so far to have been noticed. 


Canto V. 

Canto VIL 
Canto VIII. 

^m^S\^ m^^\m 


^NT^^TH ^RR?q. fRql^fCfrfim^T^^rf^: | 

TqafiqcrfR^^ ^m^ ^"Tfi ^^^i hotr: I 


f|'T=^^'^ ^TTT^^ ^fim-^^Sf^^lPr 3TfTf '^TI^ UffT^ I 


^l%IR^^frPf^RTlfoT J^q^flOTTm =f^f^rTc^IR | 
^l^ccf T^Kf^^OTTH ^^^^\ ^^^]\^ %^|q II 

^RT^ftcTT ^^: Hc?i^T w^] ^^^^] =5^^ "^m^ t 

?m m FW^ \^^^iw ^^^Ri ^^TifcT =^rT^^i 

q5[^Tmi% ^^tTT^^5. T%?^mT: ^35T=sqcTT^mT^ II 

- I 

^'^W^-? qq^lf^TT^: JT^JTfTf^ ?^RT-?q[ || 

• These passages were extracled from the copy in the Madras Government Orien- 
tal Manuscripts Library. The work has since been published in Trivandrum by Pundit 
V. Srinivasa. Sastri of the Travancore Archaeological Department. 


[By Pillalamarri Pinavirahhadra.] 

This work is dedicated to Saluva Narasimha, the first king of 
the Second Vijayanagar or Saluva dynasty. In the introduction it 
gives some information about the ancestors of Saluva Narasimha 
of whom the chief was Saluva Mangu. During the reign of the 
Emperor Bukka he was one of the generals that took part in the 
expedition to the South under Kampana Udayar, the son of Bukka 
and his Minister Gopanarya. The expedition was directed against 
the chief, Sambuva-raya and the Muhammadans who were then 
masters of the Madura and Trichinopoly districts. In this extract 
he is said to have defeated the Sultan of the south -and given his 
territory to Sambuva-raya, to have established Sambuva-raya on 
his throne, to have established the God of Srirangam in his temple 
and made a present to it of 6o,000 Madas (of gold) and to have 
killed the Sultan of Madura in battle. 

Canto / 30. 55b. 8s^^o8DoaQAbce^^g)2f3S(6^r- 'c^o^^^aDoTp^dTT' 
gs^sSbo'SJ'^ex) ^0£s5boK^^jg)cafc§-^S)^ 55bo7r>o§6cd^g-, 

"^ ^ s5b e90 c ^ iob Ab e^ 6 «5^§' e) T* o e» § ^0 . 

32. Is. 25b^55bDer^Cclxe9 lSxi6Wc^'^^bo^ 
^P|^o5j^a5CS5bD|tS)^ >Po53-G'cX5b;^s6 
fr°xyf5e D0b^S)4r»c9c7V'o'^ 

550^-0^(0025 Ijr'^^ 55b&oooO-aoo^S33x 



[J53; Rajanatha Dindima,] 

This historical poem describing the achievements of Saluva 
Narasimha who became Vijayanagar Emperor, and his ancestors, 
was written by his court poet Rajanatha Dindima. It gives import- 
ant information about Saluva Mangu. His expeditions against the 
chief Sambuva-raya and the Sultan of Madura are described, and 
the several titles which he took as a result of his achievements 
and which his descendents assumed after him, are explained. His 
munificence to the temple of Srlrangam, as the gift of 1,000 
Salagramas and the presenting of eight villages to represent the 
eight syllables of the Ashtakshara, is described at length. All 
this took place during Kampana Udayar's invasion of the Chola 
and Pandya countries in the reign of Bukka, in which Saluva 
Mangu took a leading part as a general. 

Canto I. 


\vm\^'^^]%ft^^^\^^ ^^^i] ^^\^mfm^?T]^^) (?) 

cTf^^T^^^^l-^T^qmil^ rT^^t^^TH^qr^mm'T II «V9 if 
f%?qqqT3pf TF^'q?r HJ^fl^f mTTOTfft I 

^^f W^R^^^T^I^ ^^TN^mi^^ff^^: II ^'^ H 

^^TR^^nnw^n g^'^^t ^'^^^g^i^g II ^^ II 

'?TIrq^mn%l^liH^[T?T TWTT^R:flF5fc5$:3T-5fl I, ^^ II 
'Tft'^^^i^B^^mc^ 5TT^5T^T5^'?OT[^JT^^ II ^» II 

Wf^^^r^^m^tlf ^TR^q^t^^^^^^ctm: II ^^ II, 



[By Saluva Narasimha.] 

This poem narrating the story of the RSmayana is said to have 
been written by the Vijayanagar king Saluva Narasimha of the 
second dynasty. As is usual, in the beginning of the first canto 
the author gives some information about his family and ancestors. 
The descent of the family is traced from the moon, and after a few 
mythological names the name of a chief Gunda is given. His 
capital was at Kalyana. He proceeded from his capital against a 
fort called Ramadurga ruled by a Sahara (forest) King and 
captured it. Gunda had six sons, Gunda, Madiraja, Virahobala, 
Gautama, Saluva Mangi and Savitri Mangi ; of these Saluva Mangi 
was a friend of Kampa-raya (the prince Kampana, the son of the 
emperor Bukka) and in order to help him, accompanied him 
on his expedition to the south. After defeating Champuraya he 
proceeded against the Southern Sultan who had his headquarters 
at Madura. There was fought a hard battle between Saluva 
Mangi and the Southern Sultan in which the latter lost his life. 
The victor after erecting a pillar of victory on the banks of the 
Tamraparni proceeded north to the temple of Srlrangam. There 
he is said to have made extensive grants to the god the most 
important being the gift of a thousand salagramas and eight 

* For this extract I am obliged to M.R.Ry. Rao Bahadur K. V. Rangaswami 
Ayyangar Avargal of Trivandrum for having obtamed the extract for me from the 
library of the Maharaja of Travancore. 

ramAbhyudaya ^ 33 


^1fR W^TT^^^^3^i^rH^ T%' II 
^^^rqn^T^^^ ^gTig^^ i^JT: ii 

«r^^?^R'J^^rTrTR^imfT I! 

/^ N 


[By Anantarya.] 

This work deals with the history of Srivaishnavaism in South 
India and the lives of successive Acharyas (pontiffs) of the religion. 
In the lives of Pillai Lokacharya and Vedanta Desika it gives some 
account of contemporary political events. Once when the God of 
Snrangam was taken out for a festival to the river Coleroon, and 
while his worship was going on there, a messenger arrived before 
Lokacharya and informed him that a fierce yavana (Muhammadan) 
was marching with troops towards Srirangam, and that he was 
destroying all the temples and Brahman villages on his way. 

The people of the place did not know what to do since they 
could not leave the place with the idol in the middle of the festival. 
So they all consulted together and drew lots before the God 
whether to stay or fly. According to the result of the drawing 
they resolved to stay and proceeded with the festival. Some time 
later another messenger arrived with the news that the invader 
had reached Khandanapura (Kannanur) and was thence marching 
on Srirangam itself. 

This time Lokacharya consulted Vedanta Desika as to what 
should be done in the circumstances. According to the direction 
of Vedanta Desika, Lokacharya and others took the idols of 
Ranganatha and his Queens with them, and escaped by way of 
Goshtlpura (TirukkottiyQr). After their departure Vedanta Desika 
walled up the innermost shrine of the temple (Garbhasadana) and 
prepared to fly along with the others. 

♦ This work of 125 cantos is not yet available to the scholarly public as there has 
su far been only a Telugu edition which is out of print. Entire manuscripts seem so 
far difficult of getting. The historical matter contained in this work is valuable. 


The Muhammadan invader then marched upon Srlrangam and 
breaking open the gates massacred a large number of the 
inhabitants. Just before the occurrence Sudarsana Bhatta of the 
KOram family called Vedanta Desika before him and, fearing that 
he might not survive the onslaught of the invaders, entrusted to 
him the only manuscript of his commentary on the Sri Bhashya 
called Srutaprakasika, as also his two young sons. Vedanta 
Desika escaped with the two boys and the book to Yadavadri 
(Melkote in the Mysore territory). Lokacharya and his followers 
proceeded to the Pandya country with the idols. On their way 
all the valuable jewels of the God as well as the property of 
Lokacharya were plundered by robbers in the forest. Not caring 
to live after this and learning of the sad plight of those that 
remained behind at Srlrangam, Lokacharya breathed his last at a 
place called Jyotishkudi, and from there the God was taken to 
Sundarachalam (Alagar Tirumalai near Madura). The God was 
taken from place to place in the Kerala (Malaydlam) country and 
thence to the temple at Yadavadri (Tirunarayanapuram or Melkote) 
in Mysore. After a time he was removed to the temple of 
SrTnivasa at Tirupati and was worshipped at the place for some 

Some time after the occupation of Srlrangam by the Muhammad- 
ans a Tamil (Dravida) Brahman called Narisimhadeva managed to 
get the favour of the conqueror. He persuaded the conqueror to 
remove to Samayavaram from Srlrangam and had himself appoint- 
ed manager of the place. He protected the shrine and the survivors 
from massacre, and some of the fugitives returned once more to 
their homes. 

At that time there was a chief called Gopana ruling at 
Narayanapuram. Once God Ranganatha is said to have appeared 
before him and exhorted him to lead an invasion against the 
Muhammadans ; and after defeating them, to establish him once 
more in his temple. This Gopana was a Brahman general in the 
army of the prince Kampana, son of the Vijayanagar emperor 
Bukka, during his invasion of the Pandya country. He went to 
Tirupati and taking the idols along with him marched with his 
army towards the south. He then went to the town of Chenji 
(Ginji), where for a time, he kept the idols in a rock-cut temple 
at Singavaram. Staying at Gingi, GOpana obtained information 
as to the strength of the Muhammadans and on a favourable 
opportunity proceeded to Srlrangam with his army. He then 
destroyed all the Muhammadans at Samayavaram and consecrated 


the idols once more in their temple. When Vedahta De^ika 
heard of this he hastened to Srirangam. After worshipping the 
God he composed a verse in praise of Gopana and his conquest, 
and had it inscribed on the wall of the temple. 

Adhydya 120. 

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TF^^c5 ^\wm T#^f JTf q^^ II 


rT?^^g^ V^k ^F^T frTprf iTT^^lrl I 

[By Nambiiri Kesavdchdrya.] 

This work deals with the history of Srivaishnavism in Telugu. 
It recounts the events of the sack of Srirangam and the vicissi- 
tudes of the idol of Sriranganatha till it was taken back to the 
temple of Srirangam. It gives in addition a tragic incident of 
how a dancing girl of the temple of Srirangam prevented the utter 
destruction of the temple by beguiling the Muhammadan chief 
who was enamoured of her, and treacherously murdering him by 
throwing him down from one of the gopurams of the temple. 
She is said to have committed suicide immediately by throwing 
herself from the same tower. The descendants of this courtesan 


are entitled to certain privileges in the temple of Srirangam even 
today in commemoration of this act of their ancestress. 

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Chapter I. 

This extract is taken from the beginning of the work called 
' The Wars of the Rajahs * or ' the Annals of Hande Ananta- 
puram * which appears to have formed one of the Mackenzie 
collection of manuscripts. It gives a continuous account of the 
history of the villages Bukkasamudram and AnantasSgaram, also 
called Hande Anantapuram. 

While Bukka was ruling from the city of Vidyanagar, his 
pradhani or minister Chikkappa Odeyar constructed an enbank- 
ment across the river Pandu which rises in the Kambugirisvami 
hills and formed a big tank filled with its waters in the year 
KrOdhi corresponding to S. 1286. This was near Devarakonda in 
the province of Nandela (Nandyal) south of Vidyanagar. On 
each side of the embankment he constructed a village ; that on 
the eastern side was called Bukkarayasamudram after the king, 
while the one on the western side was called Anantasagaram after 
his queen. 

Chikka Odeyar also constructed a dam across the river Chitra- 
vati rising in the hill sacred to the God Venkatesvara of Varagiri 


(Varagonda) in the Elamanchi district, sixteen miles south of 
Bukkarayasamudram and constructed a big tank. On the eastern 
side of the tank he constructed the village Bukkapatnam and on 
the west Anantasagaram. 

Chikkappa Odeyar, the minister, who constructed the tanks and 
the villages departed his life at Anantasagaram. 

Another Kaifiyat (written statement) of the same place in the 
collection says that Chikka Odeyar also constructed a temple on a 
hill near Anantasagaram and gives the date of its construction as 
Thursday, the fifth of the dark fortnight of the month of Kartika 
in the cyclic year Krodhi, corresponding to S. 1286. 

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^K5s5c)»X)^ "^^^"SJ3 « *cOe)55bo'^ ^^cj^S^ s^o3bsSb. 



[By Sayandchdrya.] 

This book dealing with the roots of verbs in Sanskrit grammar 
is written by the famous Sayanacharya, the author of the comment- 
ary on the Vedas and is called after his brother Madhavacharya 


(Vidyaranya), Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti. The book is dedicated to 
the prince Sangama, the son of Kampa, the second of the five 
brothers who founded the empire of Vijayanagar. He was viceroy 
of Udayagiri Maharajya in which high office his son Sangama 
succeeded him. The passage is in praise both of the patron, 
prince Sangama, and of Sayana. 

3fIrP^l^cTT!T?TT^T?^ ^'^f^f f^f TSff 
^: ^^IFT ^If^HT^ q^TP^^frf Timi^ II 

q^i%:g:T q^ q^q 'Tw^ ^^qni II 


Colophon. . . ' 

^^^1 ^vm^^ ^T^'^r^r^^ f^TT%cTNf ^i^Ciqi'^f ^tj- 
«€t II 


[By Sayanacharya] 

This is the introduction to the commentary of the Vedas by the 
famous Madhavacharya (Vidyaranya). It is said to have been 
written at the direction of Bukka whose Minister the author was. 



udAharanamala of bhoganatha as quoted 
in say ana's alankara sudhanidhl* 

From the following stanza we learn that Sayana had three sons, 
named Kampana, Mayana and Singana, and that the first son was 
a musician, the second a poet and the third a student of the Veda. 

* The following extracts from this work are taken from an article contributed to the 
Indian Antiquary for January and February 1917, by Rao Bahadur R. Narasimha 
Acharya of Mysore. 

udAharanamala of bhoganatha ^ 

i%^i ?^=^ mq ^fi^^5i=q=^% ^p^m 

^I?2^T5^c^c^'^^ JTfncT: ^^^Tr^ ^1^01: II 

From the following extract we infer that Kampana died either 
before Sangama II was born, or when he was a mere child, and 
that Sayana administered the kingdom as regent during the 
minority of Sangama II. 

^T^q^mm ^w^^r^^q ^^q ^r^R?q; ii 

The following shows that Sayana himself taught Sangama II 
from his childhood and gave him a liberal education befitting 
his position. 

The next passage refers to the martial valour and conquests of 
SayanScharya. The last verse refers to a victory gained by 
Sayana over a king named Champa. This king is evidently the 


same as the chief Sambuvaraya against whom Kumara Kampana, 
the son of Bukka I, Gopanarya and Saluva Mangu are said to have 
fought. His capital was at Virinchipuram and he ruled the 
country round Kanchi. Information about him is found in the 
Telugu Jaimini Bharatam and the Sanskrit poems MadhurSvija- 
yam of Gangadevi, Saluvabhyudayam of Rajanatha Dindima and 
Ramabhyudayam of Saluva Narasimha. There is a reference in 
Bhoganatha's Udaharanamala to an attack on a place called 
Garudanagara by Sangama II and Sayana, and the defeat of the 
chief of that place. 

3T[groq qf^T^S^f ^'^F?T^ ^fl^t^rT^ Hiq^^ I 
m^ ^qfl^-4 ^FTOi (Tq RP^^ W^f I 


devyaparAdhastotra of vidyaranya. 

The following verse from the Devyaparadhastotra of Vidyaranya 
shows that he should have lived more than eighty-five years. 

f ?pff %^rT^^^ ^f^ g^^i ^ ^i^ 




We learn from this that the author was patronized by Hari- 
hara IE. 



[By Mddhavdchdrya.] 

This passage is the introduction to the commentary on Sutasam- 
hita by Madhavacharya,* disciple of Kriyasakti Desika, who 
was a general under the first Vijayanagar emperors, and was ruling 
Goa and the territory near it on the west coast. He was a great 
scholar and is called the ' establisher of the path of the Upanishads'. 
He should not be confounded with his namesake, the author of the 
commentaries on the Vedas who lived during the same period. 

* This Madhava belonged to the Gotra of Angiras while the commentator of the 
Vedas belonged to the Bharadvaja Gotra. Again Chaundapa, the father of this scholar, 
has been confounded vsith his namesake Chaundapacharya, the author of Prayogaratna- 
mala (vide No. 16). Madhavacharya and his father Chaundapa belonged to the 
Angirasa Gotra, while the author of Prayogaratnamala belonged to the Vasishta Gotra. 
A-gain the second Chaundapacharya lived in the time of the king Bhupati Udayar, who 
was the great-grandson of Bukka I in whose reign Madhava, the son of the other 
Chaundapa, died. This makes it absolutely impossible fpr the two Chaundappas to be 
the same. 




mmCinqriqi II 



[By Irugapa Dandandtha.] 

This passage is the introduction to the Sanskrit book of 
synonyms NanSrtha Ratnamala. It was composed by the Jain 
general Irugapa Dandanatha, born in the family of Chaicha 
Dandesa. Harihara II ' was delighted to let the burden of Emire 
rest on Irugapa '. 

Hf^m^u^^T^^TqTFT^marf II 

TR^T^ ^^^l^\ i;4 ^ fc^^cT^ ii 
^m %w?^^i T%^T^5^^m II 


narayantvilasam 53 



[By Virupdksha.] 

This is a Sanskrit drama composed by Prince VirUpaksha, 
otherwise known as Udayagiri Virupanna Udayar I. grandson of 
Bukka I, and son of Harihara II. 

In this drama the author calls himself the governor of the 
Karnata, Tundira, Chola and Pandya Mandalas, and claims to have 
had a pillar of victory in the island of Simhala (Ceylon). He is 
also said to have performed the various mahddanas (great gifts), and 
to have been a master of all arts. The first extract is from the 
beginning of the drama, and, the next the colophon. 

g;— ?T^ Tiff: ^qng^^^fT^^^Tos^^^ qp^^if^M^: mfc^^n- 
Tm^=^T ^Rwg^r ^t^^tt^f ^im^ ^ ii 



[By Chatindapdcharya.] 

This is a commentary on the sacrificial ritual according to 
the Sutras of Apastamba. The Sage Vidyaranya was asked by 


Chaundapacharya and other scholars to explain the sacrificial 
ritual as followed in the school of Apastamba. Vidyaranya did 
so. There was a king, who levied tribute on all the world, called 
Harihara who performed all the sixteen danas (gifts) as laid down 
in the Puranas. He had a son called Yuva Bukka, Bukka the 
younger, whose wife Tippamba excelled other women in merit. 
To them was born a king whose name was Bhupati. He was once 
asked by scholars to get the sacrificial ritual commented. He 
consulted many scholars, and entrusted the work to Chaundaparya. 
Chaundapacharya was born in the gotra of Vasishta and was the 
son of the Chinnayarya and Kamamba, and had two brothers 
Aditya Deva and Manchaparya. 

• # * * 

flif =JrqiJT^f^fft sT^fl^I'^Tq'^: II 

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sqrq^c^TcT^ ^ ^«Tf?I%^ ^5*1; II 

^5'T^t'sq^%3 ?Tl5r % ?Ti'^qi^ II 

3in?cT'^T=^H4 H«rF KfT i^f^ I 

^r^^^^ 5qR-| fT^lsr^fr^ffr: ii 

5q^?ft 3^M1^ TfI<?I5TTF ^\^^J I 

^"Tpqr ^\q fj^i^5T^ gopiflq^ i 


^^T^-^^rg^qi ^cf^ 3T^^f^^: II 


5qi=q# ^jo^qi^^jq: H^(t^TqiSrR) I) 



This is a translation into Telugu of the Sanskrit Premabhi- 
ramam, a drama belonging to the class called Vidhi in Sanskrit 
dramaturgy of the poet Ravipati Tripurantaka of the court of 
Pratapa Rudra II of Warrangal. It has been translated into Telugu 
by Vinukonda Vallabharaya, a Governor of the fort of Vinukonda 
in the Krishna district daring the reign of the Vijayanagar 


Emperor Deva Raya II or Praudha Deva Raya. In verse ^ of the 
work the author VallabharSya says that his great-grandfather 
Chandra was very famous, and served as a minister of the Karnata 
Emperor Bukka I, who is here called Pedda Bukka or Bukka the 

Verse l6 says that the author Vallabha's uncle Linga was 
celebrated for his courage, and was a general under the Emperor 
Harihara whose prosperity 'he increased by his valour. 

In verse 19 it is said that Linga's brother Tippa or Tripurari 
served under Harihara as the controller of the Ratna-Bhandara or 
the storehouse of precious gems. Verse 23 says that Tripuran- 
taka's son Vallabharaya was Governor of Vinukonda, that he 
enjoyed the revenues of the village Mopuru in Mulki Nadu with 
three other villages, was a learned man and was the Head 
Comptroller of the Storehouse of precious stones in the court of Deva 

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This book was written by the famous Telugu poet SrTnatha 
and dedicated to a very wealthy merchant of Simhavikrama 
Pattana (Nellore), Avachi Tippaya Sett! by name. The merchant 
used to import valuable articles from very distant countries, both by 
sea and land, for supplying them to the sovereigns of his country. 
He is said to have imported camphor plants from the Punjab, gold 
from Jalanogi (?), elephants from Ceylon, good horses from Huru- 
manji (Ormuz), musk from Goa, pearls from Apaga (?), musk from 
Chotangi (Chautang ?) and fine silks from China. The merchant and 
his brothers were very enterprising and used to supply articles to 
the Courts of Harihara Raya, Emperor of Vijayanagar, Feroz Shah, 
the Bahmani Sultan and the Gajapati ruler of Orissa. They had 
the monopoly of supplying all the articles necessary for the grand 
Spring Festival (Vasantotsava) celebrated by the Reddi king, 
Kumaragiri of Kondavldu. 


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[By Immadi Deva Rdya.] 

This is a Champu Kavya in Sanskrit dealing with the story 
of the Ramayana. It is said to have been written by Immadi Deva 
Raya or Deva Ray a II. 

^^I^5Tl^JlS^lTBmqi iqs^^^RcT: ! 



Srinatha, the famous Telugu poet of the Reddi courts is 
said to have visited the capital Vijayanagar. When he was there 
he was asked about his native kingdom, i.e., the eastern seaboard 
then ruled by the Reddi Kings. In this his reply, he praises the 
Reddi territory whose capital was Kondavldu. 

srtnAtha's visit to vijayanagar 6i 

The following is another piece said to have been composed by 
Srlnatha during his visit to the capital Vijayanagar. There was 
some delay in his being introduced to the emperor. Srlnatha did 
not like the habits and fashions of the capital which were very 
different from those of his province, and did not relish the food 
served to him in a hotel. He addresses in this verse the goddess 
of the Kannada Kingdom, and, describing his plight, prays that he 
may return to his country soon. 

T". ^^cs^o€)Bz /r^r.ob^Se^SDo^^ So-tt'^^sSodo (S^^^r* 

These verses are said to have been composed when he visited 
the court of the Velama ruler Sarvagfia Singa BhQpala addressing 
the goddess of learning, Sarasvati, wherein he recounts his own 
achievements. He says that in the Pearl Hall of the Southern 
Ruler (the Emperor of Vijayanagar) he was bathed in gold coins 
(Dinarasand Tankas). Goddess Sarasvati helped him to compose 
the Mahakavya Naishadham in Telugu and to have the bell-metal 
drum (Kanchu Dhakka) of the Cauda Dindima Bhatta broken after 
a stiff contest with him. She got for him the title of Kavi Ssrva- 
bhauma before Chandrabhusha Kriyasakti Raya.* He prays to 
her that she may help him to come out successful in the discussions 
of the Court of Sarvagna Singa also. 

Soeo^CiS^^ eT'oi^^^ ^^"^550 

areSD^'^D^?^ ^6c^55bO(3b2S 

* This is a distinct person from Kasivilasa Kriya^kti, th^*^rd<^ptor of Madhava 
Mantrin aud Ganga Devi, the first member of the full title being the personal designation 
of the occupant and the second that of the office. 



This verse from the Kasikhandam of Srinatha refers to his 
achievements. He says that the Reddi King Virabhadra was 
praised by the poet Srinatha who was declared the king of poets 
(Kavirat) by the bathing in gold which took place in the Pearl Hall 
of the Emperor of Karnata (Vijayanagar). 




[By Sdluva Gopa Tippa Bhtipala.] 

Saluva Gopa Tippa was the grandson of Saluva Tippa who 
married Harima, elder sister of Deva Raya II, and son of Saluva 
Gopa. He was the governor under Deva Raya II and later, in the 
viceroyalty of Mulbagal. He was a great Sanskrit scholar and has 
left several works of his in the language. The following are 
extracts from his commentary on Vamana's Kavyalankara SQtra 
called Kamadhenu. 

A » • # 



[By Sdluva Gopa Tippa Bhupala.] 

In the introduction to the Kamadhenu the prince Gopa Tippa 
says that he also wrote a book on music determining the different 
ways of keeping time, and another on dancing. The following is 
the colophon of thq Taladlpika, the book on music : — 


[By Jakkana.] 

This is a Telugu poem written by the poet Jakkana and dedi- 
cated to Vennelaganti Siddamantri. He and his son Jannamantri 
were greatly patronised in the court of Deva Raya IL Siddha- 
mantri is said to have been rewarded with Chamaras, Chhatra 
(umbrella) and the Palanquin by the Minister Chamanamatya of 
Deva Raya II, 


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[By Paidigantatn Saranamantri.] 

In this poem the author says that one of his ancestors Amba- 
mantri lived in the court of Praudha Deva RSya who being pleased 
with his writing presented him with a gold style. 

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[By Gangadhara.] 

This is a Sanskrit drama celebrating the triumphs won by 
Gangadasa, Raja of Pavachala, against the Sultan of Guzerat. In 
the beginning of the drama there is a short account given of how 
it came to be written and acted. As soon as the Emperor of 
Vijayanagar, Pratapadeva Raya (Deva Raya II) died and was 
succeeded by his son Mallikarjuna his enemies, the Sultan of the 
South (the Bahmani Sultan) and the Gajapati, taking advantage of 
the youth of the monarch, marched upon the city of Vijayanagar 
with a large army and closely invested it. But Mallikarjuna 
sallied forth from his capital, like a lion from his den, and routed 
the armies of the besiegers after completely defeating them. 

Soon after this Mallikarjuna made enquiries in his court about 
the whereabouts of a poet of his father's court. He had been 


presented by Pratapa Deva Raya with very valuable jewels and 
titles, and had gone on travel into other kingdoms in order to 
hold disputations with their court poets. Then a vaitalika {court 
hard) who had just returned to his court after a triumphal journey 
in the north gave an account of his tour. 

After leaving the court of Deva Raya with presents and 
honours he made a pilgrimage to Dvaraka and went to the court of 
the Sultan of Guzerat. He there silenced all the scholars of the 
place and receiving presents from the sovereign stayed for six 

He then went to the court of Prince Gangadasa, the ruler of the 
state Pavachala, with its capital at Champakapura. He pleased 
Gangadasa greatly by his achievements and scholarship. Then 
Gangadasa requested him to compose a drama in Sanskrit celebrat- 
ing his achievements. The poet accordingly composed a high 
class drama, for which the prince honoured him with a Kanakabhi- 
sheka (bathing in gold). The vaitalika then said that, having got 
the drama composed, Gangadasa and his court were looking for the 
proper person to stage it. 

Mallikarjuna was very glad to learn about his achievements. 
Immediately an actor of his court rose and proposed to go to the 
court of Gangadasa and stage the newly-written play. 

^r^T^qr: II ?TI?q-Tf^^^T ^W 5TT?5T^TfSfq[ I 
^^T II fm ?^TT?T^»^ I 
^F^^R: II Wt3T^ I 

f^3Tq^JrfN^??>, ^^STrfN^^^ ^|^S^^Tc^S[> ^f^ ^^^m 
RrR^?Tlf|;5f^;TT^?T: ^mfe^^^fs^'r ^^l^'f^r f^RIcTrTT^^^c^. 

gangadAsapratapavilasam 6? 

^PTf T'?!^^©^ ^T#^Tf^''?iti%c!t ^m\ j^m^ ^^^ ^%- 

f^^Tpf m^q'#^ il^^^pfH^: ^^^^ I cT?t ^^I^I^'e^ 

R^^Ff: II 



These copper plates contain engraved upon them the grant by 

the last Emperor of the first Vijayanagar dynasty of the village 

Sirumala Atukuru to the Saiva teacher by name Siddha Biksha- 

vritti. They begin with the usual verses giving the pedigree of 

•These were obtained from. Mr. Koka Rangaswami Nayudu, Tahsildar of thePodili 
division of the Venkatagiri Zamindari, who has possession of them. 



the family from the moon to Yadu, and say that in his family was 
born the king Sangama. He had a son called Bukka who by his 
valour destroyed all his enemies and caused great prosperity to 
the world. The genealogy is then continued down to Vijaya. 
Through NSrayanldevl, Vijaya had a son called Pratapadeva Raya. 
Possessed of many virtues and famous for his good acts he got 
the kingdom of Penukonda (Ghanadri) from his elder brother and 
was the best (Parijata) among men. He had a wife called Siddhala 
Devi. From her Siva was born as the lord of kings, Virupaksha 
who was the personification of generosity and an ocean of 
kindness. He got the kingdom * by his own valour ', and, endowed 
with all fortunes and having conquered all his enemies *at the 
point of the sword ^ he rules the world a veritable storehouse of 
valour. Then follow two verses praising the sovereign. On the 
banks of the Tungabhadra, in the temple of Virupaksha, surrounded 
by Brahmans and the virtuous people of his court, on the date of 
his coronation, i.e., in the year of Saka counted by the Vasus, 
eight, the gunas and the earth or 1388,* in the month Kartika in 
the dark fortnight he granted the village called Sirmana AtukQru 
situated in the Rajya of Pratapagiri to the sage living in in 
Parvata, worshipping Mallikarjuna called Siddha Bhikshavrtti 
along with 400 pagodas. Then follow two verses in praise of the 
donee. The boundaries of the village granted are then given and 
it is renamed VirQpakshapuram. The last verse says that the sage 
was immensely pleased with the gift and blessed the king with 
long life. 

This inscription is important for more reasons than one. First, 
it gives the proper reading of the name of the Queen of Deva Raya 
which had been hitherto read as Simhala Dgvi. Again instead of 
saying nijagrdjaprdptam anadirdjyam in the verse referring to 
Praudha Deva Raya which was interpreted as * who got his 
ancient kingdom from his elder sister' the plate reads nijagrajaU 
prapta-Ghanadrirajyam which would mean who got the kingdom 
of Ghanadri or Penukonda from his elder brother. This would 
suggest that Deva Raya II had an elder brother, whose name we do 
not know, who conquered the kingdom of Penukonda, from whom, 
we do not know. 

Then after Deva Raya II, it omits completely all reference to the 
king Mallikarjuna who ruled between Deva Raya II and VirQpaksha; 

• I am obl'ged to the Hon'ble Diwan Bahadur L. D. Swamikannu Pillai for the 
equivalent Christian date which is Friday, 8th November A.D. 1465. The day may be 
Thursday, the 7th. .» / / 


and says that Virupaksha got the throne of his ancestors 
(pitryam simhasanam) by his own valour (nijapratapadadhigatya), 
after conquering all his enemies at the point of the sword (khadga- 
gratassarvaripun vijitya). This suggests that he came to the 
throne not by natural succession after his elder brother's death, 
but as a result of a successful usurpation. Hence it might have 
been that he omitted altogether any reference to his elder brother 

R^iqc5^m^^ HITcT ^T^J^^q: II 

^m^rmq: rT^qifq^rqi^cT: ii 

Rqf^^P?!: ^RT^tqi: ^>FcTTTq?jft^3?7Rfr^^T- II 
HrTTTTTq ??En^qTqJT'TrqTf^%q: II 


f^^mgrrrRTH ?iTTIg?:i^^: ^lIWrTM ^^w^m- II 

f^cfT5^=rg^qioff ?Tfq?TP^*T^lqm: I 
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^rTT?T§7]q^qTrTft TTT^q cT^q =^ | 
^FT^ m^^qm ^T^f^l ^qgig II 


^ ^in^Trn^^ ^irrfi ?fr%^TW^ i - 

H^Mi^^^^RT^I ^^\^ II 

« * * • 

w^^t ^ ^ ^'38rt ^: ^^qr g?M 



[By Anantacharya.] 

In giving the life of Ettur Singaracharya or Nrsimha Guru, 
it narrates the following story. Ettur NrsimhachSrya with his 
younger brother, Srirangacharya, being very poor started from 
their village Ettur for Vijayanagara, the capital of the empire, * to 
earn money.* At that time the kingdom was ruled by a sovereign 
called Virupaksha. His cousin-claimants' being jealous of his 
power wanted to injure him, and he wasforctrd to leave his capital 
and take refuge elsewhere. From there he secretly collected an 
army, marched one night upon the capitaland, putting to death 
all his enemies, began to rule his kingdom as' before. But all his 
relatives who were secretly murdered in the palace became ghosts, 
haunted his palace, and caused him very great annoyance day 
and night. To escape this VirQpaksha was compelled to abandon 


the old palace and construct a new one. But the old palace 
continued to be haunted, and the ghosts gave great trouble to the 
neighbourhood by their noise and wailings. The king performed 
many austerities and gave large gifts for getting rid of the trouble, 
but in vain. 

Nrsimhacharya and his younger brother as they entered the city 
during night, mistook this haunted palace for the king's residence 
and entered it, Ramayana in hand. At their approach the ghosts 
(pisachas) remained quiet ; and they were admitted into the 
palace. Entering the palace they found the ghosts holding court 
with king, council and attendants. On their approach all the 
ghosts bowed to them and showed them the respect due to scholar- 
ship, and the ghost-minister enquired who they were and for what 
purpose they had come there. They narrated their whole story on 
which the king directed them to come secretly every night and 
read to them the Ramayana for which he promised to pay them 
at the rate of one nishka every day. This they did for sometime. 
When they came to the end of the Ramayana, Nrsimhacharya 
and the brother directed them to make due preparation for the 
celebration of the coronation (pattabhisheka) of Rama as is usually 
the practice even now. On the day of reading the pattabhisheka 
portion of the Ramayana the brothers were presented with many 
thousands of gold coins and precious stones. After the reading 
was over the ghosts narrated to the brothers their story as follows : 
"We are all related to VirQpaksha, the present sovereign of the 
country, and have been foully murdered by him in our sleep. This 
horrible death has forced us to haunt the palace. It was on our 
account that VirQpaksha left this palace and built another seeking 
to get rid of us by vows and charities. But all that was of no avail- 
Youtwo holy people by coming here every night and reading to 
us the Ramayana have rid us of our sins, and we now go to the 
heaven of Santanika.'' They took leave of the two brothers thus, 
and went to heaven. The palace became rid of the ghosts and the 
whole neighbourhood, to its great relief, were rid of the nightly 
disturbance. They reported the matter to VirQpaksha, and VirQ- 
paksha on learning after inquiry what had taken place, summoned 
the two brothers before him. 

He enquired who they were jand why they went to the haunted 
palace. They told him that they belonged to the village EttQr, and 
were the descendants of the famous ^n^ailapQrna whom the God 
Venkate^vara called ' grandfather,' and who explained the 
Ramayaiia in twenty-four different ways to Ramanuja. They then 


gave a full account of their going to the haunted palace and of 
what transpired there. 

On hearing the whole story king Virupaksha felt great reverence 
for the Ramayana, the God Rama and the preceptor Nrsimha. 
The king was soon admitted into the Vaishnava faith by him as 
before that time he was a Vlra Saiva. After Virupaksha became 
a Vaishnava he directed his new preceptor Nrsimhacharya to 
expound to him the RSmayana which he did. On the day of the 
reading the Pattabhisheka sarga the king had him ' bathed in gold/ 
and Nrsimhacharya continued from that time to live in the capital 
itself. When VirQpaksha became a Vaishnava, all his subjects 
also became followers of Vaishnavism. The king from that time 
gave up the use of the old seal with the sign manual VirQpaksha 
on it, and adopted a new one on which was inscribed the name 
* Sri Rama.' 

^^ TI^Tf^n^^ ^^T^Y^fH^: II 

^^TH Tp4 ^W^ ^^^ JT'R g^: 



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flt^T TR^ef^ n^TR^TcT^c5^ II 
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?^f^Ir^m^^W: c^qtl^'^^g^^qt: II 

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^5r?^q^ q«ri?mq «ftfqt^f f^^t^cT: I 

^^^^q ^»qf?T?ffi^ ^A qq! II 


Adhyaya 124, 

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mhm i^^TT^ H^TWi% ^i\\^^\^, i 



[Somadeva Raja.] 

This extract /from the Narapativijayam gives some account of 
Somadeva Raja, with whom the genealogical list of the last 
Vijayanagar dynasty seems to pass from legend to history. He 
was the son of Tatapinnama Raja. In the hirudagadyam list of 
titles, which the work attributes" to Tatapinnama, he is called 
Cheruku Rdcha Nayaka Saptdnga harana (who defeated the army 
and captured the ' seven constituents of royalty ' of Cheruku Racha 
Nayaka). This seems to refer to a historical event, but we do not 
know who the Cheruku Racha Nayaka was whom Tatapinnama 
defeated. Referring to his son Somadeva Raja the work gives a 
number of historical events. He defeated the chiefs Nadabala 
Nayaka, Gujjula Viri Nedu, Rudrapa, Gaura Reddi and Gangi 
Nayaka). Opposite to the eastern gate of the fort of Gangineni- 
konda, the capital of Ganginayaka, he erected a torana or triumphal 
arch in token of his conquests. 

Somadeva also fought against the Muhammadan ruler Muham- 
mad and, completely defeating his army, took him prisoner. But 
Somadeva let him go after making obeisance. The Sultan pre- 
sented him with 6,000 horse, promising that he would name his 
own son after his captor. 


Somadeva is said to have conquered the following seven forts* 
(l) Ganginenikonda, (2) Kandanavolu. (Karnul), (3) Kaluvakolu, 
(4) Kota Rachuru (Raichur), (5) Mosalimadugu, (6) Yatagiri (Yadgir) 
and (7) Satanikota. Of these it is not possible to identify Nos. (l), 
(3) and (7). All the rest are situated in the border land between the 
Vijayanagar empire and the Bahmani kingdom where there was 
continuous fighting throughout the period of Vijayanagar history. 
The other three places are also likely to be found in the same 

The work also gives a long (birudagadya) list of titles of this 
prince, some of which seem to refer to the conquests in which he 
took part. In addition to the titles referring to his conquest of the 
seven previously mentioned forts, he is said to have achieved 
victory at the following places and got the title VirakshetrabharatT- 
malla with reference to them. The places are Akulapadu, Mudugal 
(Mudgal), Anegondi (the northern suburb of the capital Vijaya- 
nagar) and Kuntisara (?). There are also a number of titles in the 
list which are merely of general interest and do not refer to any 
historical events. 

Somadeva Raja was succeeded by his son RaghavSndra. 
Raghava was a pious king and performed many acts of charity. 
His son was Pinnama who is called the lord of the town of Aravldu. 
His son was Araviti Bukka, general of the Emperor Saluva 

<5. e55^^idr^^'S55:5bsSbe^$$)C^*«\5655boS JDQer" 
&xh^6 s^s5b^ST»Ob^Sooi©©c«or«>-£$D?5b fc8^3D>|S^ 

•The statement in the copperplate grants of the last Vijayanagar dynasty that 
Somadeva, the ancestor of those kings, captured seven forts in a single day, has hiiherto 
been considered an empty boast. But this account in the Narapativijayam tells us 
where the seven forts were and from whom he captured them. It does not say that 
he captured them all in a sing'e day, which statement is an addition made by the 
latter day courtiers of the empire. We know the approximate date of these events. 
Araviti Bukka, who was a general under Saluva Narasimha, was the great-grandson of 
Somadeva, and Saluva Narasimha lived in the latter part of the fifteenth century. 
Allotting twenty-five years for each generation we would have to fix the latter portion 
of the fourteenth century for Somadeva. He must have been one of the generals 
Qoder the early Vijayanagar Emperors llarihara, Bukka and Harihara II. Muhammad 
whom he def«ated seems to be the son of the founder of the Bahmani kingdom. 


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[By Saluva Narasimha.] 

In the introduction the author, after recounting the achievements 
of Saluva Mangi,* says that he had a son called Gautama, whose 
son Gundaya Bhupati is praised in very high terms. Gunda had a 
wife called Mallambika. As they had no issue for a considerable 
time they had recourse to a number of vows and retired to Ahobilam 
for performing penance to the God Narasimha of that place. 
Pleased with their devotion the God appeared before the king in a 
dream, and, expressing his satisfaction at their devotion, promised 
them a son possessed of all virtues and ordained to rule the whole 
world. The king awoke from his dream and communicated it to 
his wife. After a short time a son was born to them whom they 
called Narasimha after the God. The military genius and 
excellent qualities of Narasimha are then described at length. He 
is said to have ruled over the territory comprising the Kalyana, 
Kanchi, Katak, Kuntala, Chola and Pundraka. The poets and 
scholars of his court one day, after extolling his great qualities, 
requested him to display his scholarship by the composition of a 
poem (Kavya) on the life of Rama. 

3^ cT^ ^13 (^f^^^^^) g^^cT^tf^i I 

WPTM|c^^r*r^r ¥^Ff! ^^: II 
^^gt^TI^^JRt mdf^ (?) RT^^ II 

«Tf ^5^11%: ^'RJ^r ^^^^^% q^ II 

* V de extract No. 4 for Saluva Mangu. 


H^Klrfir? ^1 gTO^t fK: ^3: II 

H rrm ?Tf^fT^qT ?Tcr: f ^ ^^m^ II 
cTWT ^ ^^^^^ m^ ^dSH^^ I 

^m ^^^J ^r^ I ^^^T "^^^^m^: II 

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TTRTS^n^^^^^f ^^llTf fT% ^: II 

^ ^^ T%Ri^X st^ ^^- mm' II 

^^ Kf^^q^T^l^t^pcT 1^5^: II 
g^WH':^^ q^ ^ftm?T: ^?^ot: || 

RamabhyudaVA 85 


?tHWt^ ^^I "^J| "^^T^: ^JTR)'J2:^>^'5iS^: I 



In the colophon of canto V of the above work it is said that the 
author was Sonadrinatha, otherwise styled Dindima Sarvabhauma, 
son of Abhirama and Rajanatha, and the work is called Mahanata- 
kasyagrajatakavya. (^T^M Id+^^I^r^TTrT^Joq.) 


[By Filial amrrt Pinavirabhadra.] 

This is a poem dedicated to the Vijayanagar Empefor Satuva 
Narasimha, the founder of the second Vijayanagar dynasty. In the 

§6 SOURCES 0^ VijayanaCar history 

introduction the poet gives a long account of the achievements of 
the king's ancestors from Saluva Mangu. He explains the meanings 
of the various titles that Narasimha assumed, and says that he 
conquered the Tigula Bhumi, meaning by that term the Tamil 
country, deprived the Oddiya (the sovereign of Orissa) who invaded 
his kingdom, of his strength ; captured the fort of Raladurgam * 
and having gone to Penukonda destroyed the Pikkillu and other 
enemies of his. Week after week the king Saluva Narasimha 
made extensive gifts to Brahmans. He is said to have conquered 
many forts the chief among which being Bonagiri (Bhuvanagiri), 
Gingi, Kongudharapuri t and Penukonda. 

^?5iS«S^oo"^55?5b©-^^Abc2^o-ffle5 K^o5blr^e^y-» 

€5c6iSSey^o«:)D'^€S a?<o5S?5o€ODe 
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ao&o-u) ^56!5^CoSSS»^bC 
lS^5Sb^_^Co?co^l5c «03rr»C3^e5b55pX) 

.* .Seena.f to represent Uday a giri. 

t The printed editions give the word as Kommadharapura, an apparently wrong 
reading. The place seems to stand for Dharapuram in the Coimbatorc district. 

JAiMiNI bharatamU 87 

S5fe9"^o-5) tIS^^Kc aToe^^SSbo "^^ 

* * ♦ ♦ 

cx6^s56«$-cr>«g ^sSb^eT-Q 8S^s5b 

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y^. -^CST'O t^^-^oK ;5j^^55?r^ I^^^C© 36.vS^r?^^ 


[By Nandi Mallayya and Ghanta Singayya.] 
Varahapuranam, a Telugu poem written by the two poets Nandi 
Mallayya and Ghanta Singayya, is dedicated to Narasa Nayaka, 
the general of Saluva Narasimha. In the beginning the authors 
give a genealogy of their patron and the achievements of the 
several members of his family, as well as the achievements of their 
patron's sovereign Saluva Narasimha. Of Isvara, the general of 
Sajuva Narasimha, the poem says that he was in very great favour 


with Saluva Narasimha. He was the generalissimo of all hiS 
forces. With this army he conquered and reduced the following 
places:— ^Udayadri (Udayagiri), Huttari (?), Gandikota, Penukonda, 
Bangalore, Kovela Nelluru(?), Kundani, Goduguchinta, Bagur, 
Naragonda, Amur and Srlrangapattana. The poem further states 
that isvara Nayaka, at the direction of Narasimha, marched with 
a large army against the Muhammadans (Yavanas) of Bidar 
(Bedandakota) and destroyed their cavalry completely near the 
town of Kandukur. 

The poem goes on to say that Narasa Nayaka, the son of Isvara, 
was a patron of letters, and had the works VaralakshmlkalySnam 
and Narasimhapuranam dedicated to himself. The work also 
mentions Narasa as praised for his greatness by the sovereigns of 
Manduva (Manve), Bedandakota (Bidar) and Mahura (Mahur). 

SSr . . . §'^©^l?io S)0^^ -JpCJoSS 1^6ho7< Tr»8ST7'» 

§oe)l?oo^ Koa)oe»ex) iOO'^c ^ScPNc^bod^ -p^o&^^i^Q"^;!^ 

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* * ^ * 

Varahapuranam 89 

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sAluvAbhyudayam * 

[5>' Rdjanatha Dindima.] 

(Continued from extract No. 3.) 

Canto L — Among the sons of the famous Saluva Mangu who 
destroyed the Muhammadans in the south and restored the temple 
of Srlrangam was Gauta, to whom was born, like Abhimanyu 
to Arjuna, Gunda, the third of that name in the family. Gauta 
leaving the responsibility of ruling the kingdom to his children, 
retired to the forests to spend the evening of his life in preparation 
for the next. 

Canto 11 describes the penances of Gunda III and his consort 
Mallambika at Ahobilam, the appearance of God Narasimha in his 
dream and his promise to enter human life as Gunda's son. 
Mallamba becomes pregnant and gives birth to Narasimha. His 
youth and early education are then described. Gunda then instals 
his son as his successor on the throne and retires to the forests as a 

Canto III. — The ministers advise Nrsimha not to give himself 
up to sorrow at the departure of his parents, lest it should afford a 
favourable opportunity to his enemies. They urge him to start on 
an expedition of conqliest against his enemies and exhort him that 
if Udayagiri is captured there would he nothing to obstruct him 
on that side. In the last verse of the canto god Vishnu worshipped 

•The two extracts are taken frojn a single Manuscript, with many lacunae, in the 
Madras Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, , No. 11819 of volume XX of Des- 
criptive Catalogue (191 8) . The passages arc extracted as they are in the manuscript, 


at Venkatadri (Timpati) is contrasted with Narasimha, his avatar 
who was at Chandragiri. Narasimha resolves to set out on an 
expedition of conquest and orders a public announcement of this 

Canto IV. — Narasimha's army marches against Kalinga. The 
Ruler of Kalinga come out to meet him at the head of his army. 
Then a battle takes place between the two armies which is 
described at great length. The Kalinga Ruler is defeated, and 
retires to his city which is laid siege to. A breach is at- last 
effected in the fort and the Kalinga Raja surrenders. 

Canto V. — Narasimha then turned his attention to the south. 
After worshipping the god Siva (probably at Chidambaram) he 
proceeded against the Chola king who fled away on hearing of the 
march. On his way Narasimha sighted the Gopura of Tiruvanna- 
malai at a distance and made his obeisance. He then went to 
Madhyarjunam (Tiruvidaimarudur) and thence to KumbakOnam. 
Then by the northern bank of the Kaveri he proceeded to-^Sri- 
rangam. He spent a few days here to satisfy himself that the 
benefactions of his ancestors were being properly applied, and to 
pay his homage to God Siva at Jumbukesvaram. Thence he went 
to Madura and Ramesvaram. He thence went across as far west 
as Trivandrum (Anantasayanam). After worshipping god at all 
these places he turns back. He receives tribute from the kings 
all along the way, and there is no record of war at all except on 
the Travancore frontier. Even the Ceylon king shows ready incli- 
nation to enter into a treaty with him. 

Canto F/.— At the instance of a chief who is called Kutavacha- 
lendratatavasin, Nrsimha invaded Nagamandala (perhaps the 
same as Nagarakhanda). He left a garrison there and returned 
with a desire to conquer Prthugiri (big hill, Penukonda). At that 
place he was attacked by a Muhammadan army. He won a com- 
plete victory over the Muhammadans and justified his titles 
Dharanlvaraha and Saluvendra. After this the poem goes on to 
describe the conventional invasion by Narasimha of the territory 
of the king of Dasarna who was defeated. He is said to have 
continued his march northwards as far as the Himalayas and to 
have set his boar (Varaha) signet on the face of the Himalayas. 
After that Narasimha conquers some more northern countries and 
goes finally to Benares (Kasi) where he is anointed as Chakravarti 
by the various kings in attendance upon him in front of the god 
Vi^vesvara. On the occasion of the anointing of Narasimha there 
was a shower of flowers and sound of music from heaven in token 
of the approval of the gods. 


Canto F7/.— Description of Narasimha in court. 

Canto VIII describes Narasimha's hunting expeditions to the 
Vindhyan forest which is of course an epic invention. 

Canto IX. — Narasimha returns from the banks of the Narbada to 
Venkatadri (Tirupati). He made Chandragiri his residence for the 
purpose of worshipping Vishnu at Tirupati. He is then said to 
have descended from the hill Venkata (Tirupati) and ascended the 
hill called Airavata (?). 

Canto X describes the seasons of winter, summer and spring, 
and how Narasimha spent them. 

Canto XL — Saluva Narasimha resides in a fort on the banks of 
the Suvarnamukhi where he performed the gift of Suvarnameru 
during Sivaratri. He then receives a very large amount of money 
heaped up before him by the kings of the several countries, and 
after receiving their respects distributes among scholars all the 
presents the kings brought to him. 

Canto XII describes the return of Narasimha to his capital 
and the joy of his people in consequence. All the vassal kings 
show their respect to him by accepting various subordinate func- 
tions. The last portion praises the greatness of Narasimha, and 
declares that the kingdom was very happy, from which various 
vices and sins disappeared in his reign. 

Canto XIII praises the great qualities of Narasimha, his great 
gifts performed year after year, his patronage of poets and the 
protection of the Dharma ; and closes with a benediction that he 
may rule the world for all time. 

Canto I. 

^ tf03:qf^o^^fqiE{^Dtlr^u51^fH^ ft^: || 
Canto IL 


« « « « 

Canto III. 

• • • ■ 

f^TTT% 5H>7q|^«II?^K!5IlivT: q |^q?jffTrr?^ cT5rygafqT^ | 


» * • # 

4: Hi 4c 4: 

Rf^?t ^f#5fq^ f R^j qio:s:^HTT%^R II 
Canto IV. 

* * * . » 
R'ftgTTiTTft • • • ^WWJq gj^f??TI§f : I 
3f^Tf m^o^ 3rqi:T^R5»^ ^fg^gf: ^f^PTT%f ^: II 

# A 4t ^ 

* * * % 

* • « « 

saluvAbhyudayam 95^ 

* * * - * 

Canto V. 


♦ * ^ ♦ 

^?3^2:5^r^TT i^HI5?TlT^qT^ R^^TT^^^^K: m?^^^?: I 

frrqf^^^HT^ %^^qW^P^T cf^qiT^c^^^ cT^ ^^I^?!^ II 

* * * * . 



^l4i mp;^Wt St%c^^: II 

^^5^1%^^ . - • • ^o^?^' 1! 

lc5q^Dlf^Ig:TlH ^TfH^F^ II 

^^^^ ^'gmwm ^J^ ^^^m^ ii 

* * * ♦ 

cT^f^r^rTim^ Hi^q^^ ^^: g^Tf^g^m ^^^ !%qfm ^mi 


o o ^^ 

* * * , * 

cT^ 5r;^ig^m^ 

^orgfer ^^m^ T^fri'^51 ^]t ^^^^m T%f : ^?^'f f m ^JT 1; 

« * « « 

„ o o 

^^^c^q^TT^ ^f?r^: ^T^^I% II 




Canto VL 


?^ f^n ^^^?^ T^T^m^rT H^I^qj I 

* 5U * 

# « jie « 

I^^^^r:^^ ^^\ ^?g5^%5r ^nfg?^! ii ^c- ii 

« » « « 

^^Wm(0^mwt' ^^ ^1 ^if^^^t ^TTJFfl: II <\ \ II 
• • • • 


Canto VII. 

#T=tT^5T ^T^^rTf^?^^^^ ?TR^ft^^f ^T^'?: II ^ II 

^iitgtB ikTm im ^^^\^^^mm] mm ii ? o n 

3TRmrTR^^W^^f^: Nf r 5FTfTTT^N Hf g: I 

g>T'm^Fr%i^cT5T'i5rTi3f: HF^^Titw ^^f^ ^^ ^^ II n II 
^^^^i^^q^^^^^^^L ^T^ HT^iqr g^T^^TO: II U II 

jfi^Tm 5^^=^^ i^%o?qff: ^TcT^^^: II ? « II 

SRTTc^m^^^T^ ^>^ R^f f^^^3 I 

^^I Hf tT: f^^ ^?HI5Tt ?TfWTS^^ ^ ^IrT^ II ^ ^ II 

^Jlf^^TSm^q cfm VfyfgT ^T l^?5f ^- I 

« « # • 

PrfSf^t ^T^^ ^ 5JfTT^^^^(TTt R)^TRf II «^ II 

* * * >* 




. . . Tm?3H^^ l5f;TR%iff^ WW II 
Canto IX. 

f^55f ^ ^\^ ^%W ^^T^: 1%'saiii: m ^[|3£^Tf^ II ? il 

I* « « * 

^ /:v * S • rs« N rN 



* ♦ * ^ 

-^Ffrf^^T?q ^T^TIFcf|rft: II ^» II 

* * * • 

Canto X. 

^TF^^ig^^ ^^^Rf^^^rT^rqrrf ^^W II \^ II 
Canto XL 

SALUVABHYUDAYAlvi ^ ' ^ ' '^ ' jOl 

• • * • 

^m^ ^^ ^sr^uTTiRT^^m ft%'^: gfis^q ^^t^ Ti^rf^: n ^<^ ii 
^w?cTP#^f m^r^ I 

Canto XII. 

^f^5Ti?^m%q!Tqrqi ^m gft m ^%f tr: u ? il 

^^qqqm^q^ ^qqm?T%%: ir ^ ii 

Canto XIII 


* * # • 



This extract from the Ramarajlyamu deals with the descendants 
of SOmadeva Raja who lived during the reigns of Saluva Narasimha 
and his immediate successors. Among these, Bukka is called the 
firm establisher of the kingdom of Saluva Narasimha (Saluva 
Narasimha-rajyapratisthapanacharya). He is also given other 
titles in praise of his bravery and munificence. His rule is said to 
have prospered on account of the service he rendered always to the 
God Venkatachalapati. He married two wives Abbala Devi and 
Balla Devi. By Abbala Devi he had several sons of whom Singa 
was the eldest and he gave them the district of Nandela (Nandyal) 
to rule. By his other wife Balla Devi he had a son called Rama 

Rama Raja is said to have marched against the fort of Kanda- 
navOl (Karnul) which was in the occupation of a chief called Savai 
and laid siege to it. Each unit of his army during this siege is 
said to have consisted of one elephant, 20 horses, 6o archers, 6o 
swordsmen and 6o spearsmen. Of such units there were 3,500 in his 
army. We do not know whether these numbers are accurate. He 
defeated Bibbi and capturing Kandanavol made it his own capital. 
His relatives becoming jealous of him are said to have, at one time, 
commissioned a young boy to offer him poisoned water to drink. 
But when the boy hesitated he himself took it from him and drank 
it all. He overcame its effects, however, by the power of his 
devotion to God. 

There is also a Birudagadyam (string of titles) attributed to this 
prince. From some of these we are able to get some historical 
information about him. He defeated the chief Kasappa Odeya 
who had his headquarters at Adavani (AdOni) and drove him from 
the place. The name of this chief appears as Kacha in the work 


Balabhagavatam. He is also said to have captured the army of 
the redoubtable Savai and to have conquered the seven elements of 
royalty (Rajasaptanga) of Savai Bibbi. We do not know whether 
the two names Savai and Savai Bibbi refer to the same individual. 
In the copperplate inscriptions of the descendants of this Rama 
Raja we find the word Savai Sanskritised into Sapada, Savai in 
Hindustani and Sapada in Sanskrit both mean one and one-fourth. 
Savai is usually given as a title to Indian heroes when they show 
themselves of more than ordinary quality, e.g., Savai Madhava Rao, 
Savai Jai Singh. It seems to be classed along with such titles as 
Immadi and Mummadi attached to names meaning respectively 
twice and thrice. But Ferishta in his work says that Savoyi was the 
name by which Yusuf Adil Shah was known and was so called 
because he was born in a village of the name in Persia. 

It is just possible that in one of the two places where the word 
occurs in the extract it refers to Yusuf Adil Shah, and Kanda- 
navOl might have been captured from him. We do not know 
whether Ferishta's derivation of the word is correct. Persons who 
can have had nothing to do with Persia at any time are given the 
title Savai. For instance, the Moghul Emperor Akbar conferred 
the title upon a celebrated Jain Guru, Hlra Vijaya Suri *, who visited 
his court and whom he honoured. Another title from the Gadyam 
says that Rama Raja captured seven hundred horse from a chief 
called Hallisusena (Ali Hussain ?). 

Rama Raja married Lakkamamba and by her had three sons 
Timma, Konda and Srlranga. Of these Timma became governor 
of Avuku (Owk), Konda governor of Adavani (AdOni); their 
respective descendants referred themselves to these places in 
describing themselves. 

TP?5s5be3oiOc 7T^o'©^<$ca^ TPaSocpob'z?^ 

• Vincent A. Smith's Akbar, pp. 166-68. 


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parijatapahaRanAmu i67 



[By Rajandtha Kavi-] 

In the beginning of this historical poem dealing with the life and 
victories of Achyutaraya there is a short account of his predeces- 
sors. In the Lunar race was a king by name Timma who had a 
son called fevara who was a great warrior and who ' had set his 
foot upon the heads of his enemy kings '. By his wife Bukkama 
fivara had two sons Narasimha and Timma. Of these Narasimha 
was famous for his heroic deeds even from his youth. He 
captured the fort of Manava (Manuva ?) Durga from its Muham- 
madan ruler and gave it back to him. He laid a bridge across the 
Kaveri and captured the town of Seringapatam. He then marched 
against Madura and, defeating and killing its Marava ruler in a 
battle, captured the place. He then defeated in battle a chief called 
Konetiraja who opposed him with his elephant hordes. He made 
the city of Vidyaoura his capital. He had three queens who were 
called Tippamba, Nagamamba and Obamamba. Of these by his 
wife Tippamba he got a son called Vlra-Narasimha, by Naga- 
mamba Krishna Raya and by Obamamba, Achyuta Raya. 

^><T^^^^y[^S^^^fr^^lfT ^^^Rqf^: II H^ II 


^i\s^^ ^ ^f^^i^j: w?^# wt^ f^q. II \<: ii 

^di^+Rl^q- 3^M^T ^T[# cT^I^iqq^q^^ti || ^^ || 
^5 f^r^NI^HRf H^T^nqi: ^TTW^^^I ^ft ^?TT II ^o !| 

qfPT^m ^['Tcfprt ^ m^c^n ^i^qqi ^^11 ^^11 
^rmTBT ^%^^rrFT^ ^TT^^^TrnVmrn'^ II ^^ II 


[By Krishna Diva Raya.\ 

After giving the genealogy of his family down to Narasa, 

Krishna Raya in this work says that he had two wives Tippamba 

and Nagamamba by whoni he had two sons Vlra-Narasimha and 


Krishna Ra ya respectively. Narasa conquered all the countries 
and defeated their rulers, and was a patron of poets. His son Vira- 
Narasimha is also said to have destroyed his enemies and brought 
the whole kingdom under his umbrella. 

K^i6owoc KoSj^o'J^^ctxc'^ To 
;5bc2S"^5'^)Sooe;S© 55b^feos^«S^ 




This is an account of the reign of the Emperor Krishna Deva 
Raya of Vijayanagar. It is written in colloquial Telugu prose. 
It purports to te written to the governor of a province under 


Krishna Deva Raya, by name VisvanStha Nayanayya by an 
agent (sthanSpati) of his at the imperial headquarters. The 
chief referred to in this connexion seems to be Visvanatha 
Nayaka, son of the general Nagama Nayaka, who fought success- 
fully against his own father when he rebelled, and was eventually 
appointed as viceroy of the Pandya country. The account of 
Krishna Raya, as it is given in this work, agrees in the main with 
that of the poem Krishna Raya Vijayam of Kumara Dhurjati 
dedicated to the later Vijayanagar prince Chinna Venkata Raya. 
As in the latter work, the father of Krishna Deva Raya is called 
Vira-Narasimha instead of Narasa and he is immediately suc- 
ceeded by his son Krishna Deva Raya. Thus both the works Vira- 
Narasimha, the elder brother of Krishna Raya, who preceded him 
on the throne for some years. Both these works may have bor- 
rowed their story from the same source, or one may have been 
modified from the other, but we cannot at present say anything 
decisive about this. 

After examining his treasury and army, and making all the 
necessary preparations for the expedition against his enemy with 
the assistance of the able minister Appaji (Saluva Timma), Krishna 
Deva Raya entertained all the Boya nobles (Doras) and the men of 
the eighteen Kappanas (provinces ?) at a grand feast. He then 
ordered them to proceed to a distance of about three amadas (30 
miles) into the enemy territories and gather from there men, cattle, 
sheep and goats that they may not be available to the enemy. 
Leaving a company of horse to guard the city along with the 
minister Saluva Timma and ordering all the subordinate chiefs 
(Doramannelu), horsemen, elephants, mahouts and the people 
of the Viniyogams (divisional officers ?), he directed the war-drum 
to be sounded and with them set out from the city. 

He then proceeded against the fort of Sivasamudram which 
belonged to the chieftainship of Ummattur and fought with 
Ganga Raja, the chief of the place. The place was reduced after 
a single day's fighting. Leaving there his own servants he pro- 
ceeded towards Srirangapattanam. He examined the fortifications 
of the place and worshipping the God Adi-Ranganayaka pro- 
ceeded towards Ikkeri Arangam } There he inspected the troops 
of Sukkula Nayaka. After that he directed his army to proceed 
towards the frontiers of Vijayapura (Bijapur). On hearing of 
Krishna Deva Raya's march the garrisons of the several frontier 
forts were much afraid and began gradually to desert their stations. 
Therefore he easily introduced his own garrisons into such forts as 


Racharu (Raichur), Mudikallu (Mudkal), Addanki * and Adavani, 
and, by forced marches, capturing at the rate of one fortress a day, 
approached the frontiers of Golkonda. 

There the three Muhammadan Sultans (Adil Shah of Bijapur, 
Kutb Shah of Golkonda and Barid Shah of Bidar) had collected 
their troops, and crossing the river (Krishna) had fixed their camp 
on its southern bank with 100,000 horse and a thousand elephants. 
The emperor also learnt from his spies their respective strength, 
and heard of the atrocities they had committed in his territory. 
Krishna Raya was very angry on hearing of the atrocities of the 
Muhammadans in his own territory to the south of the Krishna. 
He summoned from among his Amaranayakam generals, the chief 
Pemmasani Ramalinga t and telling him about the Muhammadan 
advance to the south of the Krishna consulted him how best to 
act under the circumstances. The general Pemmasani Ramalinga 
said that it was no serious matter, and promised that, if he were 
entrusted with the attack, he would march on their camp and cut 
the ropes of their tents. If, at a given signal, the emperor's 
troops attacked the enemy their camp could be broken and 
the enemy routed. Moreover he impressed upon the emperor the 
fact that the Muhammadan soldiers coming from cooler climates 
could not stand and fight with the emperor's soldiers during the 
hot summer. 

Pleased with the general's reply, the emperor presented him with 
betel and nut in token of his approval of his leading the attack. 
Ramalinga returned to his troops and told them the Emperor's 
Commission. He impressed upon them that the opportunity had 
arrived for showing their gratitude to the emperor for having main- 
tained them, to fight that they may win high favour here and ever- 
lasting glory hereafter. So saying he exhorted all brave men in his 
camp to follow him, and, asking the rest to stay away, he marched 
towards the enemy's camp. He was followed by eighty thousand 
redoubtable swordsmen ' who march to the battle as to a marriage.' 
To oppose these heroes the enemy concentrated sixty thousand 

♦ This Addanki cannot be the well known place of the name. It is situated in the 
south of the modem district of Guntar to the north of the Nellore border. It must 
be placed not on the Bijapur but on the Golkonda frontier. 

t He seems to have been an ancestor of the general Pemmasani Timma who was 
the Viceroy of Kondavl^u under A]iya Rama Raya, and was the chief in whose jurisdic- 
tion the village Garikipa4u which was granted to the famous philosopher and logician 
Annambhatta lay. For the text of this inscription vide Mackenzie Manuscripts, the 
inscriptions from Garikipa4u. 


broadswordsmen assisted by 10,000 well caparisoned horses and 
one thousand elephants. They first attacked the elephants and the 
cavalry of the enemy with their broadswords and their javelins. 
After a short fight 4,000 horses of the enemy were killed. He then 
proceeded against the rest and managed to kill 4,000 out of the 
60,000 horsemen. Ramalingama Nayiidu then managed to approach 
the tents and give the signal to Krishna Deva Raya's main army 
by cutting the ropes. Upon this the triumphal band of the emperor 
struck up, and the emperor Krishna himself started on his state 
elephant with all the royal insignia, closely followed by 120 
ghattamsoi elephants, 60,000 horse and 500,000 infantry in a body. 
Simultaneously with this pressing attack of Krishna on this side, 
the river Krishna rose in floods on the other, and flowed full to the 
brim. When the attack was directed against the elephant corps, 
the elephants not being able to stand the pressure of the attack and 
suffering very much on account of the summer heat, were attracted 
by the cool breeze from over the flooded Krishna, ran to the river 
and fell into the water. The remaining troops also could not stand 
the pressure and began to escape across the river by swimming. 
Most of the people that thus tried to escape lost their lives in 
the flood. 

Only a third of the troops remained on the southern bank of the 
river. The elephants could not be pursuaded to leave the cool 
waters and so the mahouts over them thought it unwise to stay 
longer and themselves escaped. The Muhammadan soldiers of the 
three kingdoms crossed the river on elephants and barges, and 
retreated respectively to their capitals Bijapur, Golkonda and 

Krishna then came to the edge of the river and ordered the 
capture of all the ownerless elephants and horses, and of the tent 
equipage and bands of the enemy's camp. He then held court 
along with his minister Appaji and the generals Ayyamarusu, 
Kondamarusu and Bacharusu ; and poets like Mukku Timmanna, 
Allasani Peddanna and MadayagSri Mallanna. When the emperor 
asked them to describe to him the day's victory Mukku Timmanna 
composed a verse the substance of which is " O ! Krishna RSya, 
your Muhammadan enemies broke and fled at the mention of your 
name, and their elephants turned and fled seeing in you the God 
Vishnu, the rescuer of the lord of elephants ". 

The ministers advised Krishna to cross to the other side of the 
Krishna only after the rainy season was over and the floods had 
subsided. Meanwhile they advised him to reduce the fortresses of 


Udayagiri, KandQr? (Kandukur), Kondavldu, Bellamkonda, Nagar- 
junakon^a belonging to the enemy from any one of which he could 
attack him on the flank after getting into the interior of the enemies' 
territory. The emperor accepted the advice and started on the 
campaign. Then the manuscript gives two triumphal verses which 
his court poets composed at his starting. 

He marched by way of Gutti and Gandikota to Udayagiri and 
reduced a fortress called Hurmatti * at the place. On occupy- 
ing it the emperor was surprised that the enemy should have 
surrendered the fort when they had it so well provisioned. He 
then placed his own garrison in the fort under the general Kam- 
panna and proceeded to KandQr (Kandukur). The garrison at this 
place left the fort when they heard of the approach of the emperor's 
army. The emperor was about to proceed to KondavTdu when his 
agents reported to him that the garrisons in the several fortresses 
were afraid when they heard that Krishna was proceeding against 
them, and began to desert in bodies. It was also reported that 
Boya (the hunter caste) chieftains and the chiefs of the eighteen 
Kappanas were scouring the whole country and giving the people 
great trouble. 

Krishna Deva Raya marched to Kondavldu and laid siege to 
the fortress. The garrison in the place could not defend themselves 
and after one and half days surrendered the fort. The general 
Kondayya (Rayasam Kondamarusu.?) was placed in garrison there. 
Then the army was directed to Vinukonda which place also soon 
surrendered. The general Bhaskarayya (Ramaya Mantri Bhas- 
kara) was posted to govern the fort with a garrison. The emperor 
then reduced the forts of Bellamkonda and Nagarjunikonda and 
placed there garrisons under the generals Vrrabhadrayya and 
Ayyalayya. Krishna then marched into the enemies' territory and 
approached the town of Ahmadnagar (Ahmadabad-Bidar). He 
easily captured the outskirts of the place and fought a pitched 
battle with the enemy's horse outside the city. In a very short 
time 2,800 of the enemy's cavalry were destroyed and the emperor 
gained a complete victory. The garrison within the fort thought 

• According to this manuscript Hurmaltu appears to be the name of a fortress near 
Udayagiri. But in the Krishna Raya Vijayam the word occurs in the phrase 2o^i^ 
t^ ^t^;S meaning in one hurmattu and refers to the conquest of Sivamsamudram. It 
there appears to be an adverb. The proper meaning of hurmatti is not known and there 
is no fort of that name ne^r Udayagiri so far known. 


they could not stand a siege by Krishna, and in order to avoid the 
storming of the fort, evacuated it and retreated to the interior. 
Krishna Raya thus got possession of the fort very easily and 
directed the fortifications to be destroyed. He then ordered that 
castor-seeds should be sown where the fortifications stood and pro- 
ceeded towards the frontier of the kingdom of the Gajapati. 

The minister Appaji and other courtiers advised the emperor 
that he had already defeated all his enemies and annexed portions 
of their territories. It was not desirable that he should enter 
further into the interior of the Gajapati's country as he might be 
attacked on the flank by the Muhammadans who might succeed in 
cutting off his supplies. But Krishna Raya disregarded this 
counsel and continued his march. When his army was marching 
through the ghats (kanumas) it was attacked by a chief (Chitapra) 
Chitaph Khan * at the head of 60,000 archers. There was a severe 
battle between the two armies, but Chitaph Khan's archers were 
easily hemmed in by the army of the emperor, a company of which 
went over the ghats and attacked Chitaph Khan in the rear. The 
army of Chitaph Khan was defeated after a loss of 23,000 archers 
and 4,000 horse and retreated from the place. Krishna Raya left 
30,000 of his own troops to guard the passes, marched on capturing 
the districts of the Gajapati's kingdom and encamped at Potluri 
Simhadri (Simhadri Pottunur). 

After having advanced so far, Krishna Raya learnt of the great 
preparations made by the Gajapati and.his sixteen Mahapatras to 
repel his army. Fearing that their opposition might be much 
stronger than anything which he had met with so far, he was doubt- 
ful of success and consulted with the minister Appaji privately. In 
the consultation the minister advised the emperor that he could de- 
feat the enemy only by a stratagem. With the consent of the 
emperor the minister despatched some chests full of gold and 
valuables to the sixteen Patras along with secret letters. The 
letters said that the boxes were despatched to them according to 
the agreement between the Patras and Krishna Raya, and ex- 
horted them to act up to it by deserting the Gajapati during the 

• A chief of this name is known to us in Warrangal about the year A.D. 1503. A 
record of his in the fort (No. no of 1902, Madras) states that he belonged to the 
Bhogikula (Nagavamsi ?), and that he conquered Warrangal from the Muhammadans 
reinstating there Panchalaraya. It is probably this chief of Warrangal that is referred 
to above. It is difihcult in the face of this to accept Col. Haig's statement that he was 
a Muhammadan, Vide Land marks of Dekhan History, pp. 60 and 85. 


battle. Some of these boxes of presents were captured by Gaja- 
pati's messengers and taken to him. When he read the contents of 
the letters and saw the treasure that accompanied them he began to 
fear for his own safety. He escaped from his camp without being 
noticed by anybody, and went a long distance to the north. 

When the sixteen Patras went to court the next day and learnt 
about the flight of their master they retired to their respective 
fortresses. Getting to know of this Krishna Raya appointed his 
own followers to guard the Gajapati^s palace and the city. He 
planted a pillar of victory at Pottunuri Simhadri. Then he 
summoned before him the minister of the Gajapati and said that 
he had invaded the country for victory rather than permanent 
conquest and was prepared to give back his kingdom to the 
Gajapati and return to his own capital. The minister informed his 
master about this and the Gajapati returned to his capital and 
apologised to Krishna Raya for having fought with him. The 
sixteen Patras were also sent for and they also begged pardon of 

Highly pleased with their action Krishna Deva Raya made 
them presents of gold and jewels. The Gajapati gave his daughter 
Jaganmohini* to Krishna Raya in marriage and made him 
presents of valuable gems, ornaments, elephants, horses, scents, 
etc. He also returned the boxes containing the treasure which 
Appaji sent to the Patras in order to deceive him. He ceded all 
the country to the south of the river Krishna to Krishna Deva Raya 
as the dowry of his daughter. 

After the marriage festivities wer? over Krishna Deva Raya 
started back to his own territory escorted by the Gajapati's 
minister and officers. When the rulers of Golkonda, Bijapur and 
Ahmadnagar learnt of this they thought that they could never more 
defeat Krishna Raya and meeting him on his way concluded peace 
with him after apologising for past misconduct. When he went 
as far as Tirupati in his own empire he learnt that the Muham- 
madans of Kalyan and Gulbarga showed signs of hostility. He 
marched to Gulbarga and reduced the fort after capturing 6,000 
horse at the place. He then appointed Gujjari Kalyana Rao as the 
governor of the place and returned to Tirupati. 

• This marriage is also referred to in the Krishna Rajavijayam and the preface to the 
commentary on Praboriha Chandrodaya by Krishna Raya's general Nadindla Gopa, 
The five verses called Tukka Panchakam are said to have been composed by the daughter 
of the Gajapati when sh^ foan4 that the emperor's love to her had waned. In this her 
name is given as Tukka, 


At Tirupati he performed all the sixteen danas as laid down in 
the sastrasy and presented to the god valuable jewels and gold. 
He also had copper statues of himself and his two queens Tirumala 
Devi and Chlnna Devi, cast and set them before the god of the 
place that they may signify his constant worship. He thence 
moved to Kalahasti where he also made large grants to the god on 
the twelfth day of the bright fortnight of Asvayuja in the year 
SrTmukha.* He also constructed at Kalahasti several choultries. 
He then marched to the south visiting on his way all the chief 
temples. He is said to have visited the god VandTsvara (.?) who 
was worshipped by the Tripuras (Rakshasas). Among the places 
that he visited were Alagar Gudi (Alagar Koil or Tirumalirunjolai 
near Madura), Madura, Srlvilliputtur, Karuvanallur, Sankara- 
nSrSyanarkoil, Dakshina Kasi (Tenkasi), Trikutachalam (Kurralam), 
Agastyaparvatam (Podiyil hill), Gajendramoksham (}) Salivatam 
(Tinnevelly), Totadri (Vanamamalai), Tirukkurungudi, Kanya- 
kumari (Cape Comorin), Srlkandur (Tiruchendur), Nava Tirupati 
(near Alvar Tirunagari). His grants to the god Sundare^vara and 
Mmakshi at Madura, to the goddess Andal of Srlvilliputtur were 
specially valuable. He constructed the big tank at Srlvilliputtur 
and endowed a lakh of Madas towards the cost of the Mantapa in 
its centre and the stone work. At Agastyaparvata he constructed 
a new Gopura (tower), and at Tinnevelly the Tamrasabha, a big 
stone hall covered over with sheets of copper. He founded a 
village called Krishnarayasamudram near Tinnevelly. 

Krishna Raya then went to Setu (Ramesvaram"^ and worshipped 
the god there. Thence he crossed over in barges (Kalams) to 
Dhanushkoti. There he washed the blood stains off his sword and 
performed three Tulabharas (weighing against gold). He stayed 
there for three days and thence went to Gokarnam. After 
worshipping at the place he returned to his capital Vijayanagar 
by way of Seringapatam after a long absence. There he made 
very costly presents to the gods Vitthala and Virupaksha, and held 
his darbar on an auspicious day with all his relations and 
ministers. There he made Appaji sit upon a costly carpet 
(ratnakambali), and had his Svarnabhishekam and Ratnabhishe- 
kam performed. He made him presents of costly jewels and 
perfumery. The other generals also he rewarded each according 
to his merit. 


♦This is incorrect. Srlmukha corresponds to the year A.D. 1512 — 3 and is mnch 
too earlv to be correct. 


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SS-aO©"^^ OOOO^SO e^OaV^O-O. 


[By Kumar a Dhurjafi.] 

This is a poem written by Venkata Raya, a poet who lived in 
the Court of the Prince Chinna Venkata of the fourth Vijayanagar 
dynasty and who was the fifth in descent from the famous Kavi 
Dhurjati who lived in Krishna Raya's Court. He is popularly 
called Kumara Dhurjati or Dhurjati, the younger. At the request 
of his patron Chinna Venkata he wrote this poem celebrating the 
victories of the famous Emperor Krishna Raya of Vijayanagar. 
The poem makes a Vlra-Narasimha the father and predecessor of 
Krishna Raya, but does not mention Vlra-Narasimha, his elder 
brother who ruled for nearly six years before Krishna Raya suc- 
ceeded. For the sake of Kavyauchityam (literary propriety) 
perhaps, it says that Vlra-Narasimha Raya (for the work calls the 
father of Krishna Raya by this name), finding that he had grown 
old, installed his son Krishna Raya on the throne and himself 
retired. The coronation ceremony was attended by all the promi- 
nent feudatory chiefs of whom the following are important : Araviti 
Bukkaraju, the chiefs of Owk, the chiefs of Nandela, the Velgodu 
chiefs, the Khurasanivaru, the chiefs of Bodahali. 


Then Krishna Raya enquired from the minister Saluva Timma, 
addressing him Appa (father), what was the amount of his 
imperial revenue and the strength of his army. Saluva Timma 
gave a detailed account of the number of elephants, horses and 
infantry that were maintained, and the expenses from the annual 
revenue on their account, as also the gross revenue that was 
collected every year and the deductions that were made from it on 
account of Devadaya, Brahmadeya (grants to Brahmans and tem- 
ples) as well as the money saved from the revenues by previous 
rulers. He then compelled such of the governors as did not main- 
tain the necessary forces to do so and to pay a heavy fine to the 

Then the spies that had been sent from Vijayanagar to the 
neighbouring kingdoms returned bringing with them the news that 
the Muhammadan rulers of Golkonda and Ahmadnagar (Nizam 
Shah) had sent their representatives to Bijapur to consider what 
steps should be taken against Krishna Raya, the young Emperor 
of Vijayanagar who had just succeeded ; and their representatives 
Venkoji and Dadoji were day and night consulting each other and 
were corresponding with the Gajapati of Orissa. The three 
Muhammadan rulers had reinforced the garrisons of all the frontier 
fortresses and stored large quantities of provisions and ammuni- 
tion there. Moreover they had made strict regulations with 
regard to the entry of strangers into their territories and fortresses, 
and established a system of sealed passports. 

News was also received from the Vijayanagar spies in the 
territory of the Gajapati of Orissa that the envoy of the Nizam 
Shah had informed the Gajapati that Krishna Raya was making 
preparations for war against the chiefs of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur 
and Golkonda, and was intending to cross the Krishna into their 
territories. As he might then advance even as far as Ahmadapu- 
ram (Ahmadabad-Bidar) they cautioned the Gajapati to be on the 
alert and garrison his fortresses. The Gajapati agreed to do so. 
After the necessary preparation Krishna Raya summoned all the 
important chiefs to his Court and making them the usual presents, 
entertained them at a banquet. Giving the necessary instructions 
to the officers at the capital he started with his army. 

He defeated several refractory chiefs who opposed him. After 
capturing their fortresses and garrisoning them with his own 
troops he proceeded against Sivanasamudram, the capital of the 
UmmattQr chief Gangaraja. Having defeated him in battle, he 
captured the place, and after taking possession of the money in 


the place visited ^rlrangapattanam. He left the place and in a 
short time effected a junction with the troops of Sankula Nayaka 
(of Ikkeri) and marched against the frontier fortresses of Bijapur. 
The garrisons in many of these fortresses surrendered after defeat 
and Krishna Raya spared the lives of their Governors. He then 
put fresh garrisons in the fortresses of Adavani (Adoni), Mudu- 
gallu (Mudgal) and RSchUru (Raichur) and directed his march 
towards Golkonda. 

On hearing this, the three Muhammadan rulers of Bijapur, 
Ahmadnagar and Golkonda collected their armies on the southern 
banks of the Krishna to prevent Krishna RSya's crossing the river. 
When Krishna Raya heard this he held a council of war and 
Pemmasani Ramalinga, one of the chief generals, came forward 
and requested that the attack against the enemy may be entrusted 
to him and promised to drive out all the enemy and capture their 

The troops engaged on the Muhammadan side in the war 
amounted according to the work to 1,000 elephants, 100,000 Bondelas, 
100,000 Pendars and 100,000 Muhammadans, whereas the Vija- 
yanagar troops amounted to 600,000 infantry, 6,6oo horse arid 2,000 
elephants. Krishna Raya won a complete victory in the battle 
that ensued. The court poets that followed him on the campaign 
as Madayagari Mallana, Allasani Peddana and Mukku Timmana 
composed verses in his praise. 

Krishna Raya then consulted Appaji (Saluva Timma) about 
proceeding further into the Mussalman territories; but Appaji 
replied that it was not at all desirable to enter into the interior of 
the enemies' territory leaving the Gajapati free to attack him on 
the flank in the east. The Emperor accepted the salutary advice 
and directed his march towards the east against the Gajapati. 

The chief officers that accompanied Krishna Deva Raya against 
the Kalinga territories are then said to have belonged to the fol- 
lowing families: the Aravlttivaru, Toragantivaru, GobbOrivaru, the 
Tuluva lords, the chiefs of Owk, Velugotivaru and the Ravelavaru. 
They attacked the fort of Udayagiri and soon reduced it. Thence 
he proceeded north and in his onward march besieged and cap- 
tured one after another the fortresses of Kandukur, KondavTdu, 
Kondapalli and Vinukonda, and dispersed the garrisons in all of 

After that Krishna Raya proceeded against Ahmadnagar. 
This Ahmadnagar is Ahmadabad-Bidar and not Ahmadnagar, 
the capital of the Nizam Shahs. After reducing the place and 


hoisting his own standard there, he turned once more towards the 
interior of the territories of the Gajapati in spite of Saluva Timma's 
remonstrances. While Krishna Raya's troops were crossing the 
ghats into the Gajapati's territories he was attacked in the passes 
by a chief called Chitaph Khan with a large number of archers. 
He defeated Chitaph Khan and after driving away his troops 
marched into the territories of Kalinga as far as Potnuri-Simhadri 
and fixed his camp at the place. 

Then as a result of a stratagem played upon him by Saluva 
Timma, the Gajapati suspected treason among his chief generals, 
andthinking that everything was lost, left his capital one night 
and fled towards the forests. When his generals came to hear of 
their chief's defection they also retired to their several places and 
Krishna Raya captured his city very easily. He had the great 
magnanimity, however, to prevent his soldiers from doing any 
harm to the Gajapati's palaces or family. 

Krishna Raya sent word then to the Gajapati through the 
latter's minister saying that he was prepared to come to terms 
with him and promised to give him back his territory. The Gaja- 
pati was very glad at this and, in his joy, gave to Krishna Raya 
his daughter in marriage and presented to her as dowry all his 
territories to the south of the Krishna. 

Thereupon Krishna Raya proceeded against Kulbarga, and, 

reducing the fortress, returned to his capital after a Jong absence. 

Krishna Raya then proceeded to the south on a progress through 

his empire and visited Srl^ailam, Kalahasti, Chidambaram and 

other Saiva shrines, Srirangam, Kanchi (Conjivaram), Tirupati 

and other shrines of Vishnu, and bathed in the sacred rivers such 

as the Kaveri and the Tamraparni. He also had many literary 

works dedicated to him of which the most important was the 


N.B.— The original is not given here for considerations of space. The work has been 
published and is available to the public. 



[By Krishnadeva Rdya*] 

In the introduction to this poem of Krishna Raya, he says that 
while on his expedition against Kalinga he stayed for a few days 
at Vijayavati (Bezwada), and went to ^rlkakulam to worship the 


God Andhramadhusudana (Andhra Vishnu) of the place and spent 
the Ekada^i (eleventh day after the full-moon and the new-moon) 
fast, at that place. On that night in the fourth watch (yama) the 
God appeared to him, and, recounting the several works which he 
wrote in Sanskrit, Madalasa Charitra, Satyavaduprlnanam, 
Sakalakathasarasangraham, SQktinaipunignana Chintamani and 
Rasamanjari, directed him to compose the story of Goda (Andal, 
the daughter of Vishnuchitta, Periyalvar, one of the twelve Sri 
Vaishnava saints) in Telugu. Telugu was according to the God 
the best of the De^abhashas and could alone be understood by 
all those assembled in his court. He exhorted the king to dedicate 
it to God Venkate^vara. 

Krishna Raya then gives a genealogy of his family from the 
moon. Of his own achievements which he gives us in the words 
of his court poets, he has a long account. The fire of his valour 
which was kindled by his sword coming in contact with the rocks 
of Udayagiri advanced to Kondavidu, and after defeating Kasava- 
patra, crossed the Jammiloya and reduced successively the district 
of Vegl ((Vengi), Kona (the Godavari delta) and Kottamu, Kanaka- 
giri, Potnuru, Mademalu, Oddadi and even threatened Cuttack so 
that the Gajapati fled from there. In another verse the Uriya- 
speaking Patras of the Gajapati's army are said to have gone from 
Kondavidu to heaven in large numbers having been defeated by 
Krishna Raya. Later on Krishna Raya is represented as having 
planted a tall pillar with inscriptions on it at Potnuru to comme- 
morate his victory over the Gajapati. In the next verse (41), the 
Muhammadan soldiers of the cities of Kulbarga and Sagar killed 
in battle by Krishna Raya are said to be in heaven giving great 
trouble to the gods. In verse (42), he is said to have fought with 
the troops of Adil Khan, and, having killed him in battle, to have 
exhibited his head as a sign of his glory. The next verse (43) 
describes his munificent benefactions. The five colophons give the 
important particulars of the capture of the Gajapati's uncle in 
Udayagiri, of his son Vlrabhadra in Kondavidu, of Praharesvara 
and his treasure at Kondapalli, of his worshipping god at 
Simhachallam and of the erection of the pillar of victory at Potnuru 
bearing an inscription. The final verse refers to a bloody engage- 
ment against the Muhammadans at a place called Kemhavi * and 
the destruction of its fortifications. 

• This place is in the Nizam's Dominions in the Raichore Doab. {Ej)igraj>hia Indica 
XII, pp, 291-92.) 


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Colophon of Canto I. 
Colophon of Canto II. 

Colophon of Canto III. 
Colophon of Canto IV. 

(i) The name of this uncle of Prataparudra is given as Tirumala Raghavaraya or 
Tirumala Kantaraya in inscriptions (vide Nos. 37, 38, 40and4i), Butterworth Nellore 

(2) At Kondavidu Krishna Raya is said to have captured alive not only Virabhadra, 
the son of Prataparudra Gajapati, but several others like Naraharipatra, the son of 
Kumara Hammira Mahapatra, Mallukhan and Uddandakhan of Rachuru (Raichur), 
Rachiraju of Pusapadu, Srinatharaju and Lakshmipatiraju, Kasavapatra of Janyala, 
Balachandra-Mahapatra and others (vide Nos. 574 of 1902, 196 of 1903, 272 of 1897, 
Madras Epig. Rep.). 

(3) Inscriptions give in addition to Praharesvara the names of Bodajanna Mahapatra 
and Bijilikhan as having been captured at Kondapalli. The name of Praharesvara 
appears in inscriptions variously as Bhupati Pritalacjana Siraschandra (No. 511 of 1905), 
Bhupati Pradhanaraja Siraschandra (No. 74 of 1903) or Bhupati Ahladana Siraschandra 
(No. 125 of 1904). 


Colophon of Canto V, 


[By Nandi Timmayya.] 

In the reference to Krishnadeva Raya*s family at the beginning 
of this book Krishna Raya is described as God Krishna himself 
born again into the world. In a battle which Krishna Raya fought 
on the banks of the Kaveri near the Western Ghats the water of 
the Kaveri was made quite red with the blood of the large number 
of enemies whom he killed. Near Kondavrdu Krishna Raya 
defeated the son of Pratapa Rudra and having captured him, 
* gave him back his life '. In his triumphant march in the territories 
of the Gajapati he captured Udayagiri, Vinukonda, Kondavidu, 
Bellamkonda, Velupukonda, Jallipalli, Anantagiri and Kambam- 
met ; and the Gajapati was in hourly apprehension of his march 
upon his capital Cuttack. In a verse at the end of the first canto 
he is represented as hearing, along with his queens, the works com- 
posed by the poets assembled at his court for the spring festival 
every year. In the beginning of the second canto he is described 
as staying in a palace called Malayakuta, and in a verse at the end 
of the canto he is praised as having pulled down the walls of 
Ummattar and Sivasamudram, the citadel of the Raja of 
UmmattQr. At the end of the fifth canto the poet gives some in- 
formation about his own family. He was the son of Nandi Singa- 
matya and Timmamba, nephew of the clever Malayamaruta 
Kavi *, and pupil of AghOra Sivacharya. He was presented by 
Krishna Raya with an agrahara (Brahman village) for his skill at 
dice. In the next verse Krishna Raya is said to have performed 

• Ghanta Singayya, the joint author of Varahapuranam (vide Extract 32 above). 

parijatapaharanAmIj 13O 

the gift of Mauktika Tulapurusha, i.e., weighing himself against 
pearls, which he distributed among the learned. 

Canto L 

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Canto IL 

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[By Krishna Rdya of Vijayanagar.] 

This is a Sanskrit drama written by the Emperor Krishna Raya. 
In the prologue, the drama is said to have been enacted before the 
people assembled to witness the Chaitra (Spring) festival of VirQ- 
paksha, the tutelary god of the Karnata Empire residing on the 
top of the mountain Hemakuta in the city of Vijayanagar. 

^^^m^jm ^m 







[By Sdluva Tim ma.] 

Saluva Timma, the famous Minister of the Emperor Krishna 
Deva Ray a, has written a commentary on the Champu Bharata 
of Agastya. 



The following five verses are ascribed by tradition to Tukka, 
the daughter of Pratapa Rudra Gajapati, the ruler of Orissa, who 
was given in marriage to Krishna Raya. She is said to have been 
neglected by her husband and to have led a life of seclusion at 
Kambam in the Cuddapah district. The big irrigation tank at 
Kambam is said to have been constructed at her instance. In the 
verses she bemoans her husband's neglect of her. , 


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[By Nddindla Gopa Mantri]. 

Nadindla Gopa, the author of this commentary on Krishnami^ra's 
Prabodha Chandrodaya, was a nephew of Krishna Raya's well- 
known minister Saluva Timma. In the introduction the author 
gives in addition to his own genealogy some account of Krishna 
Raya and his great minister. Referring to Krishna Raya the 
account says that Krishna Raya married the daughter of Prataparu- 
dra, the Gajapati King of Orissa. His minister Saluva Timma is 
said to have governed the whole country extending from sea to sea 
and from the Setu to Simhachalam. Saluva Timma's nephews, by 
his sister Krishnambika and Timma Mantri, were Nadindla Appa 
and Nadindla Gopa Mantri. Of these the elder Appa was also the 
son-in-law of Saluva Timma. Gopa is said to have excelled, by his 
ability as a minister, the famous Chanakya, Bhatti, Sivadeva and 
Yugandhara. He was presented by Saluva Timma with a 
palanquin, anklets (Kataka), chauris, ear-rings, bracelets and other 
insignia of royalty. Gopa governed the district of Kondavldu with 
Vinukonda and other forts, and gave to Brahmans several agra- 
haras like Ramachandrapuram. 

m^l^^ HiRifflrar ^^M^ fWTH^r^Tc?t^f^lf^;?ft?rm II 


^PTF Cmn^RTT Turgi^ ^mv ^^w- f^s^HT-* 

^^^ ?^Hor^: ^f^ ^ ^ Hpl II 


q: ^f^^m^^Fi'^ ]^mm ii 

• Srikantesvara in the printed Nimayasagara edition ; the manuscript reading adopted 
above is apparently ihe correct reading. 

t There seems to be a reference here to Sivadeva, the famous minister of the Kakatlya 
King Ganapati and his successor Rudramba. 




[By Madayagari Mallana], 

This poem is dedicated by the author toNadindla Appa Mantri, 
the nephew of Saluva Timma Mantri, Krishna Raya's Minister and 
the Governor over the district of Gutti. In the beginning of the 
work Appa's genealogy is given at length. In the Kau4ika Gotra 
was born Namana Mantri who married Singamamba, and got the 
three sons Madaya, Gangana and Chitti Gangana. Of these Chitti 
Gangana became famous as a minister of the emperor Saluva 
Narasimha. His elder brother Madamantri married Amalamba, 
and to them were born the five sons Nannaparya, Lingamatya, 
Varada the commander of troops, Madhava Mantri and Rama- 
bhadra. Of these Varada married Gopamamba and got three sons : 
Timma, China Timma and Konda. Of these the eldest Timma 
became famous as a minister and destroyed all his enemies in 
the battlefield. He married Krishnamamba, the sister of Saluva 
Timma, and got three sons by her : Kona, Appa and Gopa. Of 
these Gopa was the Governor of the fort of Gutti and his elder 
brother also became very famous. Nadindla Appa married Tiru- 
malamba, the daughter of Saluva Timma, Minister of Krishna Deva 
Raya, and Lakshmama. 

/ _ 


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[5y Nadindla Gopa Mantri], 

In the introduction to this work written in Telugu Dvipada metre 
by Nadindla Gopa Mantri, the nephew of Saluva Timma, the famous 
minister of Krishna Raya, the author gives an account of his family. 
In the Kau^ika gotra was born Timma Dandanatha who married 
Krishnamamba, the sister of Saluva Timma. They both got three 
sons : Kona, Appa and Gopa. Of these Appa became very famous 
for his benefactions to the poor, was a Kirlti (Arjuna) in battle, 
and had dedicated to him the Telugu poem Rajasekharacharitram. 
He married Tirumalamba, the daughter of his maternal uncle 
Saluva Timma, who is called the Samrajya Dhurandhara (bearer of 
the burden of the empire of Krishnadeva Raya), and his wife Laksh- 
mamma. His younger brother Nadindla Gopa is called Nadindla 
Sasana (ruler of his native village Nadindla). Through the favour 
of Saluva Timma he was appointed governor of the fort of 
Kondavldu. He constructed the prakaras (compound walls) and the 
gopura (tower) and palaces for the God Raghavesvara worshipped 
at Kondavldu. Covering the temple with paintings he presented 
the village Maidavolu to the God. 

^StoTT^i^a *c^o5b|ebc2^55;^55bo l©cSS6oc5b 
^i)02Sb^o3^cS5bo5boi©:sJ5ro{3§' .... 




KrisHnarjUnasAmvadam 151 



[By Desaydtndtya]. 

This commentary was written by Desayamatya, an assistant 
of Nadindla Gopa who felt happy in having entrusted the burden 
of ruling the province to him. He made large additions and 
gifts to the God Siva worshipped at Koncjavldu. Desaya Mantri 
was the son of Annayamatya, and was a warrior as well as 
a scholar. He says that he comments upon the Mahimnastava 
through the grace of Lolla Lakshmldhara, his guru (preceptor), 
whom he compares with the God Ganapati in wisdom. Lolla 
Lakshmldhara whom he praises as his guru was a very celebrated 
scholar of his time. We find him as the author of the Kondavidu 
and Kaza inscriptions* of Krishna Raya. He has written works on 
Astronomy, Astrology and the Mantrasastra, as well as on all the 
six Darsanas (religious schools), and Law. He was the author of 
the work Sarasvatlvilasa, upon law, attributed to Prataparudra. 
This Prataparudra was the ruler of Orissa, contemporary with 
Krishna Raya, who became his father-in-law. Lolla Lakshml- 
dhara enumerates Sarasvatlvilasa among his works in the colophon 

♦ Edited by i>r. Liiders in the Epigraphia Indica^oX. VI, pp. 117 etseq. 

and 233 et seq. ;: 


to his commentary on Saundaryalaharl. He was author of 
a portion of the encyclopaedic work on Astronomy, Astrology 
and allied subjects called Jyotisha Darpana. 

^=^mfNm R^n ^^ ^m^ ii 

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I. In this verse the famous poet Allasani Peddana of Krishna 
Raya's court, who dedicated the work Manucharitram to him, 
bemoans Krishna Raya's death. He blames himself for surviving 
such a patron, and recounts the various marks of honour which his 
late sovereign bestowed on him. Whenever Krishna Deva Raya 
met him outside, he made it a point to stop his elephant and to 


give him a seat by his side. When the poet was taken round in 
procession on the occasion of dedicating his work Manucharitram 
to him, the emperor lifted the poet's palanquin with his own hands. 
When the anklet, Kavigandapendera, was presented to Peddana 
signifying that he excelled all the other poets of his court, he 
himself put it round the poet's ankle saying " you alone of all 
deserve it." Krishna Raya granted him the village Kokatamu, 
and whatever other village or villages he chose to ask in any part 
of the empire. He used to address the poet Andhrakavita- 
pitamaha (the grandfather of Telugu poetry). 

2. The verse following is said to have been composed by 
Peddana addressing the Gajapati (of Orissa) who invaded the 
Karnataka territories after Krishna Raya's death. In the verse 
Peddana recounts the victories which Krishna Raya won over him, 
drawing pointed attention to the following four incidents : (l) that 
Krishna Raya devastated the Aratlakona with his elephants ; (2) 
that he put up his triumphant inscription at Simhadri ; (3) that he 
set his siege elephants to charge against the bell-metal door of 
the Gajapati's fort ; and (4) that he gave his daughter in marriage 
to Krishna Raya after putting upon his ankle the Gandapenderam 
(anklet) as a sign of submission. He then goes on to rebuke the 
impudence of the Gajapati's invading the Kanarese country after 
Krishna Raya's death. Tradition has it that the Gajapati returned 
to his territory after the incident. 

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[By Muralidhara Dasa]. 

In this biography of Vallabhacharya, the great Vaishnava 
teacher of Gujarat, by Muralidhara Dasa, it is said that once in 
his youth he went to the court of the Raja of Visakhanagara 
(Vizagapatam ?), called Krishna Raya. He was very much 
honoured at the court. Even his envious uncle, though personally 
inimical, stood up along with the other members of the court and 
showed him respect. Vallabhacharya was made to take his seat 
on a Ratnasana (jewelled chair). While there he learnt of a 
religious controversy between the Vaishnavas and their opponents 
in which the latter succeeded. Not able to endure the defeat, he 
entered the controversy and defeated all the opponents of Vaish- 
navaism. Rejoicing at this Krishna Raya honoured him by a 
Kanakabhisheka. But he did not accept the wealth as he thought 
it was not necessary for the establishment of his religion. But he 
accepted ONLY four or five coins out of the money, just for the 
satisfaction of the king. 




The following verses taken from the Tamil Navalar Charitam 
refer to Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagar. 

The first verse by an author called Kumara Sarasvati refers to 
the conquest of Orissa by Krishna Deva Raya and of his marriage 
with the daughter of the Orissa king. The next three, ascribed to 
an author Tatvapraka4ar, have reference to irregularities of manage- 
ment in respect of daily worship in the Tiruvalur temple. On 
hearing the complaint, Krishna Raya ordered the dismissal of the 
culpable servants of the temple against whom is aimed these 
stanzas wherein the author contrasts, in bitter satire, the previous 
position of the priests with that to which they had reduced them- 
selves by their own action. The last stanza draws the attention of 
Krishna Raya to the destruction of the metallic images of two of 
the 63 Nayanmars by the temple priest Nagarasa Nambi ; the 
interesting part of the story is that the people who complained had 
recourse to a parrot which had been taught to recite the poem in 
the hearing of Krishna. 


iQ^s^lLl. QeuTLLi^iuesrQuiT jb Qusssr (210) 

^rfliu euL^ui2<s\)ujir jrirSssor — ^(i^euir^iru 

^luirsd Q^rt^u9jDd^irQ^. (212) 

vSljDik^Qfl Qilu^essrjrir iut . (213) 

AULj€^^ QuiT^Qs' ssSltpiB^, (214) 

uSq^AQ^ (iT^esr QLLnf.€sriTirtuir, (177) 


[By Vallahhdcharya, otherwise Kavi Devendra] 

This is a translation into Telugu of the Sanskrit mathematical 
work of Bhaskaracharya, Lllavatl, by Vallabhacharya who is 
otherwise known by his title Kavi Devendra, the Indra among 
poets. The author says that he wrote the work at the request of 
Bommalata Kala, son of Rommalata VirQpaksha, who was the 
confidential servant of the emperor Krishna Raya, and after him. 
his brother Achyuta Raya. The position held by the patron of 
the poet at court can be gleaned from the following statement 
which is found in a sum griven as an exercise in the work. Achyuta 
Raya presented a large amount of money to his subordinate 


Bommalata Kala of which he presented half to his religious 
preceptor Kumara-Tatacharya ; of the remainder he gave two-thirds 
to Brahmans ; of what remained still, he gave a fourth to poets, 
and, giving five-ninths of what remained yet to his friends, gave 
the author Kavimahendra himself the rest which amounted I,ll6 
(Varahas?). . 

A. . . . ^csi 

« « * « 

zT'A Sooths' sSboeScOooc a)0-«)^"&)C 
^ eo 

§'g);5b'1j^oUSbl6 §'8^0^ 2DoAl)f6^ 



[By Raianatha DiridimaY 

This historical poem after recounting the victories of Narasa 
says that Narasa's wife Obamba gave birth to a son who was 
called Achyuta. 

Canto //describes the youth of the prince and his studies. 

Canto III. — The king Narasa got the young Achyuta married to 
several maidens born of various families of ruling chiefs belonging 
to the race of the sun as well as the moon. Of all these Obambika 
was his favourite. Narasa wished that his three sons, Vlra-Nara- 
simha, Krishna and Achyuta should rule the empire one after the 
other. Of these Vira-Narasimha ruled the kingdom in peace and 
released many prisoners from imprisonment. After Vira-Nara- 
simha, Krishna Raya ascended the throne and was a terror to his 
enemies. He captured many fortresses like Kondavidu from his 
enemy the Gajapati of Orissa, and planted a pillar of victory at 
Patupettanurpura. This last name seems to have been miswritten 
for Pottunurapura near SimhadrT, in the Vizagapatam district where 
according to the Amuktamalyada, Manucharitra and other contem- 
porary works he is said to have planted his pillar of victory. 
After Krishna Raya's reign grand preparations were made by 
Narasa to celebrate the coronation of Achyuta. Achyuta*s corona- 
tion was first celebrated at Tirupati where he was bathed in the 
water poured out of the conch in the hand of the God Venkate^a. 
Afterwards Achyuta went to his capital Vidydna^ara where his 
coronation was once more celebrated. There his queen Varadam- 
bika, the daughter of Salaka Raju, and his son Pinna Venkatadri 
were also anointed as Queen Regnant and Crown-prince res- 
pectively. At the time of his coronation Achyuta performed the 
gift called Suvarna-Meru and gave it to Brahmans. 

Canto IV. — One day after his coronation Achyuta*s minister 
waited upon him in the palace called Venkatavilasa and reported 
to him on the affairs of his empire. He said that Chellappa (Tarn. 
Sellappa), one of his subordinate governors, had revolted, and after 
being defeated in battle, escaped from his province and had taken 
refuge with the Travancore (Chera) king in his territory. Chel- 
lappa and the Chera king together had made war on the Pandya 
ruler and driven him from his ancestral territories. The minister 

• Vide extract 36 above. 


exhorted Achyuta to protect the Pandya who was an exile from his 
ancestral kingdom and place him once more firmly upon his throne, 
and punish Chellappa and the Chera king for their revolt. 
Achyuta resolved in consequence upon making war with Chellappa, 
and ordered his general to march with his army to the south. 

Canto V. — Achyuta started on his expedition and went to 
Chandragiri in a few days. There he stationed his troops and 
went to Tirupati to worship the god at the place. He presented to 
che God a pair of ear-rings (kundala\ a padaka (a jewelled medal- 
lion hung on the necklace and worn on the breast), and a jewelled 
crown, and stayed there for a few days. He then went to Kalahasti, 
worshipped the God at the place and made to him large grants. 
From there Achyuta proceeded with his army to Kanchi. There 
the king weighed himself against pearls which were distributed for 
charity. While at Kanchi several forest kings (Kiratas) waited 
upon him with tribute and presents. Accompanied by them he 
proceeded further south and went to Arunasaila (Tiruvannamalai). 
After worshipping the God of the place he entered the Chola 
country and after a few days' march reached Srirangam. Having 
stayed there for some time he intended proceeding further on his 
expedition when one of his officers, the son of Salaka, told him 
that it was not necessary for the king to go against a small chief 
like Chellappa and requested that he might be entrusted with the 

Canto VI. — On the assent of the sovereign the general marched 
to the south past the city of Madura, and encamped on the banks of 
the Tamraparni. Thence he despatched a subordinate officer of 
his to march against Tiruvadi, the Chera ruler. The Tiruvadi 
came with his army against him near the mountains where a great 
battle was fought between the two opposing forces. Having 
been defeated in the battle, the Tiruvadi with the remnant of his 
troops and with the Chola king (probably the ruler of the province 
of the Vijayanagar Empire corresponding to the Chola kingdom) 
approached the general and prostrating before him acknowledged 
his own defeat. He also handed over to him the fugitive Chola 
king and made presents to him of elephants and horses. The 
general accepted these for his sovereign, and reinstating the 
Pandya on his ancestral throne proceeded to Anantasayanam 
(Trivandrum), to worship the god of the place. 

Canto F7/.— From Anantasayanam the general went to the Setu 
and bathed in the sea at the place. Thence he returned to 
Srirangam in a few days where th« emperor stayed spending all 


the time in the company of poets and scholars. The general 
presented before Achyuta the Chera king and the other prisoners, 
and submitted to him a report of his expedition. Achyuta ordered 
the Chera king who had invaded the Pandya territories to be 
punished and the Pandya to rule over his ancestral territories. 

Canto VIII describes life in Achyuta's camp and the pleasures 
of the king. 

Canto IX continues to describe the pleasures of the king. 

Canto X, — Achyuta proceeded with his army along the banks of 
the Kaveri to SrTrangapattanam (Seringapatam). There he was 
met by the governors of the place who made him large presents 
of money. He then turned north and crossing his own territories 
proceeded towards the territories of the Hayapati (the Sultan of 

Catito XL — Achyuta marched against the territory of the 
Hayapati (Bijapur Sultan), and laid siege to the fort of Raichur 
which was garrisoned by the latter's troops. The siege is then 
described at length. The Sultan sent fresh troops to assist the 
garrison at Raichur and raise the siege. Then a battle was fought, 
between these troops and those besieging Raichur, which is de- 
scribed. The lord of the Yavanas (Muhammadans) was defeated 
in the battle, and he fled from the field. Achyuta after capturing 
the horses and elephants of the enemy's army proceeded to the 
Krishna on the banks of which the Sultan had collected all his 
troops. The armies of the Sultan and the king were ranged on 
the two banks of the Krishna and they were preparing for a battle 
when the Sultan left his army, and riding across the river, pros- 
trated himself before Achyuta signifying submission. Achyuta 
then accepted the allegience of the Sultan and returned to his 
capital Vijayanagar after a long absence. 

Canto XII describes Achyuta's triumphal entry into his capital 
and the grand reception he was accorded by his subjects. The 
manuscript is incomplete and breaks off at the thirty-seventh verse 
of this canto. 

Canto II. 


Canto III, 

9fT5qiRJTT^T^ m^if ^§ot ^fx^^\ m^^m^ ^F^^T: II U II 

grgt^T ^fjoTTft^^^imH: ^T^Tm f^^oi^fr^^T^^: HUH 
3^1 ^CmI ^5%^ ^q^R^ ^^>^^^1 T^^^: II KM 

^^iTff^r^Tf^TfjrofT^qTq^^ ^q^Til nf^^ilr: ii H« II 

«T^TW^'l'^q^n|^M55T^%TIffTHiT^Tc5H3TcT: II ^^1 

g^Tjipq^m g^ ^.ff g^ii^^5«T#T ^^f^f^ ii ^^ ii 



f%TTTl?I«lf^?r5tf S;if?R^I^q^I^afRf^ flfqi^fq II ^ ^ II 

^qm Ti^q^qj ^4r^^^qT =q ^^T^'^iqg;^^^ 11 ^H 11 

HT^ ^fgf^cisr^q qgq H^qq rrti^ qTT%'3c 11 «^ 11 
wg^fm q^^q^ ^^i ^i^^qq fm j^h^^t 11 ^vs n 

rw^ 'T^^^t q^: ^m t^^t =q ^ trc^^oj^ n <\V3 n 

^x^m =qqfqMq^ ^R^i^q n^nqfer 

pRmg gic!f?r«rq: ^q^ qj^^Tt ^g^iq 11 s^' 11 

C^w^f? F. 

H ^q^q ^T^qfqqq h^c5 ^srq^o^^ff^q^gTcr: 1 
37iq^ sqf^qf^iq^ qqf^Trsfq RrTqi^rqiT^ 11 ? 11 


1^^^ H^'^g^ff c5?fT5^fiq^fl;^w^'tT^'T?L 1 

^WRcfqgq^mcT^r ^t^ttt^t^ ^^^h^^t ii »^ ii 
3ffrvr^'5^rTmN f^Rf^ ^^i^^ri^ ^q^TT^q^ ii »^ ii 

3TR5fTcTt^5qqqq^T5=^3nrTqn^^^qR^rH. I 

R?^r ^TTcTR^^T ^^Frft^TT^f m^^^qrrg II ^ o II 

[^^Tf^ t^ ^^gw f^JT^i^'^fr ^^m ^^^c^fi^ 11 M II 
^#g%T^^q: f^^TWwTF^r^ sf^rq^i^-g?^!^ i 



^rf^gp^ SFFWc?^ ^^Tm: ^^\X^^ ^^cfftrT: 11 f ^ II 

«im»^ ^^ ft ^^^ f^^T toi^^ ^j^]^ ^ =^mTq> ii <^ ii 

Canto VL 

^FT^it^f =5T ^^] ^^r{]^^ £mq^mf|rrt m^n^ li \ ii 

sT^f^w ^^T^^mqt^fq ^r?jt q^^g^i?^ ii ^^ ii 
f^T^i%w§H2:T5Trn fq^fq'^^^-q^f^'qTj'T i 

^m^ 3teMf^^(T^RqTTqm^Wt^f|Tt: II H^ II 

3Tq#fcT^q S'^I^^q?^'^^: ^ H^f2:T^^?T: I 

ff^ ^ Rl^ H^T^TT^T^igTCT^^K TqJTR^T^T^ II ^* II 

arf^ qF^qq^T?tftqq^yqf^?rRmgqr!RW ^?: IMUI 
\m^ ^qj^g^f^ ^f{qi s^HK^'if^qR^Tf qi^ i 

3T?T ^^^gcfqqT^q^f^g5? Prf^Tq^f yg^g II ^^ II 


Canto VII. 

^\m'^ ^mm^i^is ?^r=3 ^in^|: ^^-gq^i 

3fTim^T^?nq^^^mJT§:K ^"TS^^^mT5:iTf[ I 

^fg^^im^rffT^gqr^T cT^^F^I^T rTFt#?TWqnT H U II 
^(Jljgt^q^fp^nr: ^TS'^q^t: ^T^^^ ^^Tqnl ^#1: I 

3m=^^M f^^t^^m'T: ^\^V^ ^^rqcflRTR^f q^ II ^^ II 
»iTTKT^l^^trgfqvrr5f: ^ %T[%^fI%sq^K[: || ^^ || 

JT^^Rlt HT^^ni^^m? ^VqfJT f[8^q ^^t^^^: II ^« II 

^^T^^i^TH^ql^'^'^W^ ^T^^T ^m#T?Tin II ^^ II 
'T^FN ^mr«T2^ HIH WS^I^qmr^^ II ^v^ II 

c5Rqt^^ T^?rpcn:# ^^^t Rf^ ^^?t: II \<r II 


3T[m?imT^l^*T^^^=5 g^: . . Rr^^Sig^^'T II ^^11 
f^HT ^R: 1%^'JTTf^^FTl f^^TS^^f: i^2^\i H^cT^j 

^m^^rfR ^^q^far^R a[[<f 5^M4^%-?^^TqL II ^^ n 

3#^m^T^^RT^?^l%^: I 
=T^<RfT^^rf^rTTHiTfRfRT: II ^C || 

Canto X. 

^n^Tiq^^^cT 'T[^TWTTR?rmiJl^ I 

f^i^w 'Tfe^f^ ^ ^"rg^^Ti^ II «^ II 

«rRT^ ^T^qR^TTrTqi ?T Rrf^ II «^ II 
«n^TI f^T^R^R^TTI^qR: 

KT^irL HR?qR ?rgf^efT w^r: ii v^s n 


Canto XL 

^^cq f^f^^^^qj^^^: f%j%^: ^^f^^ f5r^^ (^?) x^^S^q | 

KT^^FcTTF^T f^rflW^ ^T^T^R«? ^R^qf^^^ II 

^^5fj^^H?|Tq]|^i(0x^trwf^'?3^qft J^^fk^^ II u II 
^^i^> ^^r^ct: ^cfNgqn ^mT^m . . fq^^w ^ qf|: i 

5qT^fWTf^?RTf^%T%WT3^F5n^( Hg^rq^R^ H^F: II U II 

fq[OF: f^ f^R^^lfT?T% I 
H^FMT^TTS ^^Wii ^^^ct II ^<^ II 


R^m: ^3?RJTT?K|cTT^T: I 

3TT^m?mgfwwm ?tw: ii ^^ ii 
^it T%F^W5rT%N 3^Fi^ II '<i^ II 


^^^IMTTO^tr^ ^^^^jf: II ^H II 

H-?| ?r^^%^^%^Tm-55 II ^^ II 


JT^^TT^Tf^Tf^^^-^ II \^ II 

^4 ^ *rf^^t ^^?5?riHrT5^: II ^Ol 

^T^t ^^^^^lIsfq^m'TK: II S^ II 

gfi ^ cfst^orjiicTT^n mfmRm^'t i%c5c5t^ ^^tji^ ii h n 


Canto XII has only thirty-seven verses and seems incomplete. 
There is only one manuscript of this work available and the 
extracts are made therefrom in this imperfect condition. 


[By Tirumalamba]. 

This Sanskrit Champu (work written partly in prose and partly 
in poetry) deals with the marriage of princess VaradSmbika with 
Achyuta, who afterwards became the emperor of Vijayanagar as 
Achyutaraya. It was written by a lady called Tirumalamba* who, 
in the long colophon at the end of the work, enumerates her 
accomplishments at great length. She was greatly admired in the 
Court of Achyuta for her achievements. The book seems to 
have been written during the reign of the Emperor Krishna Deva 
Raya because it comes to a close soon after the description of the 
youth of China Venkatadri, son of Achyuta. When Achyuta 
succeeded to the throne in the year 1 530 this son China Venka- 
tadri was already old enough to be installed as the heir-apparent 
according to the Achyutarayabhyudayam of Rajanatha. 

The work gives a genealogy of Achyuta's family. In the Lunar 
race of kings was born Timma who married Devakl, and got by 
her a son called Isvara. Isvara married Bukkama and had by her 
Nrsimha or Narasa. 

Narasa went to the capital Vidyapuri (Vijayanagar), and from 
there spread his fame in all directions. First he marched to the 
east t and after defeating his enemies there, turned his attention 
to the south and marched with his army along the sea coast. He 
crossed the Tundira country (Tondamandalam) and approached 
the Chola districts. The king (or the Governor .?) of the Chola 
country had been opposing his (Narasa's) troops and harassing the 
country. Narasa crossed to the south of the river Kaveri, and awaited 
the arrival of the enemy. The Chola king too did not accept 
the advice of his ministers to come to terms with Narasa, and 

• This Tirumalamba seems to be the same as Oduva Tirumalamma (or the student 
Tirumalamma) who appears in No 9 of 1904 as the composer of the verse in the inscrip. 
tion commemorating the gift of Svarnameru 'Mountain Meru of gold ' performed by 

t This campaign of Narasa in the east seems to be the same as that of his father 
Isvara. Both of them were subordinates of the Emperor Saluva Narasimha during his 
wars against the Uriya kings Kapilefivara and Purushottama who had conquered some 
portions of the Vijayanagar empire in the north.e&tt. 


prepared to fight. A severe battle was fought between them both 
in which the Chola was taken a prisoner by Narasa. After the 
capture of the Chola he ordered his troops to desist from fighting, 
and saved the people from further molestation. He then entered 
the enemy's capital * which is not named in the work. The 
Chola king then fled to the sea coast leaving all his wealth and 
relatives behind him. 

Narasa then entered the town of Madurat and was presented 
by its sovereign with valuable articles, and proceeded to Rames- 
varam across the sea. While at Ramesvaram he made many 
gifts. He then proceeded against the town of Seringapatam 
situated on the island in the Kaveri. There he constructed a bridge 
across the river, while it was in flood, and reduced the town easily. 
Accepting defeat at his hands the ruler of the place surrendered 
himself with all his relatives. Narasa forgave him and restored 
him his kingdom. The Parijatapaharanam says that Narasa 
defeated a Heuna chief at Seringapatam. We do not know who 
this chief was. 

Narasa is then said to have captured the forts of Dumakur 
( .'* Tumkur .? ) and Tarasangi. He visited the sacred shrine of 
Gokarna on the West Coast and performed there the Tulapurusha 
and other gifts. Narasa now turned his attention to the north where 
the Suratrana (Sultan), perhaps Yusuf Adil Shah, had garrisoned 
the fort Manavadurga (Manuva or Manve) in Haiderabad(Dekhan). 
Narasa defeated the Sultan but gave back the town to him after his 
submission. After this achievement Narasa returned to his capital 

• We do not know who this Chola was and where his capital was situated. 
Perhaps he was the chief ruling the Chola districts from Tanjore. In our present work 
he is said to have been captured as a prisoner, and later on, to have escaped to the sea 
coast. But the Parijatapaharanam dedicated to Krishnaraya says that Narasa killed 
the Chola. We cannot say which of the versions is correct. 

t The ruler of Madura is according to this account said to have submitted to 
Narasa without fighting and to have made him valuable presents. But the copperplates 
of his successors and the Achyutarayabhyudayam give a different version. According to 
the Achyutarayabhyudayam he captured Madura after killing in battle its Marava ruler. 
Again inscriptions say that he captured it from a king called Manabhusha. This Mana- 
bhusha has been identified with Arikesari Parakrama Pandya surnamed also as Mana- 
bharana and Manakavacha of the Tenkasi Pandyas. The Achyutarayabhyudayam again 
says that Narasa defeated a chief called Konetiraja who opposed him with his elephant 
hordes. We do not know who this chief was. Konetiraja is perhaps a corruption of the 
title Konerinmaikondan which is one of the titles of Perumal Parakrama Pandyadeva 
alias Kulasekhara. (Travancore Archaeological Series I, p. 104.) But he succeeded to 
power only in SS. 1464 or AD. 1542-3. Therefore the term Konetiraya of the Achyuta- 
rayabhyudayam cannot refer to him. There were others that have had the same title 
and the present reference might be to one of them. No. 259 of 191 1, in Kumbhakonam, 
of AD. 1490-I, refers to a Konetiraja of Kanch I 


The work then describes Narasa's marriage with Obamamba. 
His earlier marriages with Tippamba and Nagamamba are not 
mentioned in this work. Obamamba is described as the daughter 
of Rachiraja, born in the Solar race and his wife Sriramambika. 
As a result of his marriage with Obamamba, Narasa had a son who 
was named Achyuta. Narasa is said to have died after his son 
Achyuta was a grown-up man. After describing the youth and 
early life of Achyuta the work describes his marriage with Vara- 
damba*. She was the younger sister of two of Achyuta's 
ministers both of whom were named Tirumalaraja. When 
Achyuta and his wife had lived happily for a considerable time 
they had a son by the favour of the God of Venkatadri (Tirupati). 
The child was consequently named Chinavenkatadri. Observing 
with satisfaction the character and achievements of the prince, 
Achyuta had him installed as Yuvaraja (heir-apparent). After 
this the authoress prays to the God Venkatesa to preserve her 
patron Achyuta, his queen Varadamba and the prince Venkatadri. 

* * «|i * 

* * * # 

R^c^i ^fm^ ^\\r\^m] fig: r^^^ f^^^R^^^^s?^ II 
^i?1 f^^^ 5F^f ^iT^^i ^i^^^if^K^T ^^=5ir 

♦ Varadamba is described in the Achyutarayabhyudayam as the daughter of a 
chief called Salaka or Salaga (SalagakshitWa). His two sons who had the same name 
Tirumala were distinguished by the preceding epithet Peda (elder) or Pinna or Chinna 

f This work remained unnoticed, as it was catalogued Ambikaparipayam by 
Burnell. Its real character was ditcovcred on reading through the MS. 


^ufnTf55: 5Ts?q^c5>: ^mm w^m 

» • • # 

# * • * 

^^ ^^ mm^ 

* * * * 

^Jiil^^'^i^^if^^3.' ^T^^^i* %^fR? ^im II 

* * * * 

f ^Tm^ q^g^- ^^J^\i ^m 11 

R^^J^Rflf^q^q5rqR5^H:^fai^fH^R: Ii 


* * ♦ ♦ 

^m f ^13^1 ^K^ri ^^^ i%?^ii% ^1% ^h^ h^^mft^i 

* * * * 

fq^^T r!?Rq t^q ?T^|q^Tff?)d^qfT5q5nQ5 iFT^c5i?jr^lri; i 
%h q^ir ^^^nqfir-T fti^icj^^qq fq^r^^rgmf^q ^mmi \ 


awrTT|w^^^w^^iJHgn>cr 5Rg- 

^^F^^q^J?fq^ f^^mq?^ I?^Ig? 1 sn^T^T .... W^fei^q'lSW: 

* *•• • r 

^STqi^qif^gy^f 9Tpfiq q^n%f^ ^^mg^ ^qofF^ri; | 

H^q^^^q ^m^: Hf^q^ ^^^ ^\^ HnqJTfl^ gcfi?l^I^ II 

• • # 

^m^f^^^»^4^Rl^ ^f^qi%fgcfq=53c!fm^H^ II 

» * * * 

jfRigor^^'^^iai^ 3'^Rf^ ^m B^^^^^^lm^w ii 

5irTq|*TR^T: f^^q^TRfpf^R^I-' ^^^^T: R^R^r. ^T^^^ m^lfk 

^fn^Ri m^^^ .... rfqffifgqJT^^cfr — 

* ♦ * » 

f^^ ^^]kw^ m^\^] h^tr^ttt ^?^ ^r? ii 

« # * » 


« * ^ * 

^ * » # 


[By Rajanatha Kavi.]* 

This, is a poem written by Rajanatha Kavi of the Dindima 
family whose other work, the historical poem Achyutarayabhuda- 
yam, has already been quoted. This poem deals with the story of 
the Bhagavata, and is dedicated to the poet's patron Achyuta 
Raya, whose family and genealogy are described in the introduc- 
tion. In the Lunar race of kings was born Timma who married 
Devaki and got by her a son called i^vara. This I^vara married 
Bukkama who gave birth to Narasa whose son was Achyuta. 
Achyuta was a great king, made extensive conquests and 
performed all the sixteen gifts (danas) prescribed by the Sastras. 

One day Achyuta called the poet Rajanatha Kavi, the son of 
Sonagirinatha, before him and directed him to compose a poem 
embodying the story of Vishnu upon which Rajanatha composed 
the Champu Bhagavata. 

* The author of the Saluvabhyudam (Extract 33) is also a Rajanatha, son of Arunagari- 
natha or Soijadrinatha, and is likely naturally to be taken to be the same as this author. 
The former gives himself the titles Dindima^ Kavisarvabh.iuma among others of a similar 
high character. There is besides the important fact that the Saluvabhyudayam, which 
seems complete so far as the conquests of Narasimha are concerned, makes no reference 
to Narasimha as Emperor of Vijayanagar. On the contrary it associates him intimately 
only with Chandragiri. Hence it seems a work of the pre-imperial period of his rule. 


Canto I. 

[fk^'T: II \^\\ 

«T5nqcTm^^ =^ "^mwi] ^v^^ ^d^rfRT: HUH 

3Ti§^ ^RmF^R^^T^^if^: R^^^f^TR^R^^?^ nun 
qRjTtm ?^T ^^N^'^^^^^^m^i II R° II 


^^: ^m^rm^T ^^c^T IflF^fTTf^ II X^ II 





This chronicle says that after the death of Krishna Raya in S.S. 
1487 (wrong) his queens Chinna Devi and Tirumala Devi wanted 
that Rama Raya who had niarried the daughter of Tirumala Devi 
should rule as the Aliya (son-in-law) helped by his younger brother 
Tirumala Raya who had married the daughter of Chinna Devi. 
But Salakam Timmaya, who had been the treasurer of the court, 
taking advantage of his position managed to get the control of 
the army and tried to imprison both Rama Raya and Tirumala 
Raya. Finding this out they both fled from the city and after 
wandering over the Penukonda Viceroyalty, collected an army and, 
capturing the fortress of Adavani (Adoni), lived for four months in 
the place and, getting together additional troops from the side of 
Kandnavol (Karnul) and Gadwal, proceeded with all of them 
against Vidyanagara. On this Salakam Timmaya invited the 
assistance of Barid Shah, Nizam Shah, Ali Adil Shah, Kutb Shah 
and other princes of the Bahmani kingdom, and promised to hand 
over the whole kingdom to them if they helped him against Rama 

On that the Muhammadan forces advanced upon the capital, 
Vijayanagar, and encamped within a kos of it. On this Rama 
Raya and Tirumala Raya summoned Hande Hanumappa Nayudu 
of Sonnalapuram, who was a great hero, and along with him 
encamped within two leagues of Vijayanagar on the banks of the 
Tungabhadra. As the Muhammadan chiefs were new to the place 
they placed the troops of Salakam Timmaya in the front and 
waited for the attack being delivered by him. Knowing this 
Rama Raya and Tirumala Raya delivered the attack upon the 
forces of Salakam Timmaya, but his forces, thinking that he was 
only a Golla (shepherd), who wanted to snatch away the kingdom 
as he was rich, deserted in a body, and he was killed in the fight. 

The queens of Krishna Raya on hearing this ordered the 
ministers to hand over the city to Rama Raya and Tirumala Raya, 
and the order wag accordingly carried out 


Afterwards Rama Raya and Tirumala Raya wished to make 
war on the Padishahs. Dividing their joint troops into three 
sections, they directed Hande Hanumappa Nayudu of Sonnala- 
puram to lead one section against the Muhammadans while they 
each led another. Hanumappa Nayudu was to march against the 
Nizam Shah, Rama Raya against the Kutb Shah and Tirumala 
Raya against the Barid Shah. There was a great battle between 
them and the Padshahs fled from the field to their own country. 
But Hande Hanumappa Nayudu took the Nizam Shah prisoner and 
offered him as a present to Rama Raya and Tirumala Raya. 
Thereupon they were very gracious to him and directed him to 
state what he wished from them for his services. Hanumappa 
Nayudu stated that he would be satisfied with anything they chose 
to bestow upon him. 

On that they bestowed upon him in the eastern country 
Nandela, Bukkarayasamudram, Dharmavaram and Kanicallu, and 
in the west Ballari and Kurugodu with complimentary titles. 

Then this Hande Hanumappa Nayudu took leave of the Rajas 
and went to Nandela where he took charge of his new office. He 
then proceeded to Bukkarayasamudram where he beheld the lake, 
and, learning how great it was, caused a palace to be built in front 
of the fort in the village around which he erected bastions and 
governed the district till Saka 1505,* Chitrabhanu when he died. 

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* This date and the ones given before are alike wrong. 

i8g sources of vijayanagar history 

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(Aliya Rama Raya and his children). 

This extract from the Ramarajiyamu deals with Aliya Rama 
Raya and his successors. Aliya Rama Raya defeated the armies 
of Salakam Timmaraju and captured the forts of Gutti, Penukonda, 
Gandikota, Kandanol (Karnul) and Adavani (Adoni). Rama Raya 



is called the ruler of the city of Tndraji. Assisted by his two 
younger brothers Tirumala and Venkatadri he marched against 
the Nizam who had disobeyed his orders, and, having captured his 
capital Ahmadnagar, razed it to the ground and sowed castor seeds 
there. Then the poem gives a long birudagadyam (string of titles), 
wherein the various conquests of Rama Raya are referred to. A 
list of the more important of the titles and their significance is here 
given : — 


Kalyana PuravaradhTsvara. 
Kanyakumari BhTmarathl 

Tatanta Nikshepa Vijaya- 

Gutti Durga Nirbhedana. 
Adavani Durgapaharana. 
Penukonda Durga Sadhaka. 

Chandragiri Durga Rajya- 

Uddagiri Rajyapalaka 

Rayadurgavana Dhuran- 

Kandanavolu Kavata Bhe- 

JutQru Samara Nirvahaka ... 

KondavTti Durga Nayaka ... 
Rettahalli Slma Pratishthita 

? Dhama Sagara. 
Puttapalli Slma Pratishthita 

? Dhama Sagara. 
Bankapura Vlraramalingita. 

ChandraguptI Dharantara ... 
Rachuru Rajyaharana Dhur- 

Muduganti Durgadhinayaka- 
Orugallu Nagara Poshana ... 

Vijayapura Bhaya Dayaka... 


Ruler of the city of Kalyan. 

Planter of pillars of victory at 
Cape Camorin and on the 
banks of the Bhima. 

Breaker into the Fort of Gutti. 

Capturer of the Fort of Adoni. 

Capturer of the Fort of Penu- 

Ruler of the Fort of Chandra- 

Protector of the Fort of Udaya- 

Protector of the Fort of Raya- 

The breaker-open of the gates 
of the Fort of Karnul. 

Conqueror in the battle of 

Ruler of the Fort of KondavTdu. 

Constructor of tanks at Putta- 
palli and Rettahalli. 

Embracer of the Goddess of 

heroism at Bankapur. 
Ruler of Chandragutti. 
Capturer of the province of Rai- 

Ruler of the Fort of Mudgal. 
Protector of the city of War- 

Terrifier of the city of Bijapun 




Sollalapura (Sonnalapura) 

Kalyananagara Sadhaka ... 
Amudanagara Salabhanjana. 

Devagiri Durga Samakranti 

GautamTsnanapavanakara ... 


Bedadakotanagara Simha 

Kalubarigikotapatana Dhur- 

Sagarasamakramana Dhira. 
Hamsa Durga Nibarhana ... 
Jurnuru Bhaya Nirnayaka ... 
Ramagiri Durga Pratishtha- 

Yadagiri Durga Bhedaka ... 
Golakondapura Dushana ... 

Ayilakondaharana Kautu- 

Panuganti Durga Patana 


Savaga Durga Badhaka 

Mavura Durga Madhaka ... 
Makkhakota Sikshanikara. 
DhillTpura halla-kallola 
Goleru Sanderu Bhaya-San- 

Kalamba Durga Kampasura. 

Paigova Nagara BhTshana, 


Hero who made the town of Sol- 

lalapapuram throb with fear. 
Capturer of the town of Kalyan. 
Destroyer of the fortifications of 

Occupier of the Fort of Deva- 

Hero who became holy by 

bathing in the Godavari (Gau- 

Hero who fought the battle of 

Balichapali (Balijepalli). 
Terrifier of the Fort of Bidar. 

The breaker of the walls of the 

Fort of Kulbarga. 
Capturer of the Fort of Sagar. 
Capturer of the Fort of Hamsa. 
Terrifier of the town of Jurnuru. 
Establisher of the fortress of 

Capturer of the Fort of Yadgir. 
Chastiser of the city of Gol- 

Capturer of the town of Ayila- 

Reducer of the Fort of Pangal. 

Lord of the town of Bella m- 

Destroyer of the Fort of Savaga 

Capturer of the Fort of Mahura. 
Punisher of the Fort of Makkha. 
Terrifier of the city of Delhi. 
Hero who instilled fear to the 
towns of Goleru and Sanderu. 

Hero who made the Fort of 

Kalamba shake. . ' 

Terrifier of the city of Paigo 


1 84 



Kondapalli Harana... 


Capturer of the Fort of Konda- 

Protector of the Fort of Vinu- 
k >nda. 

Constructor of the new fortifica- 
tions of Nagarjunikonda. 

Hero who destroyed the pride 
of Avanti. 

Hero who is praised by the king 
of Cuttack. 

Hero who reduced the king of 
Rajmundri with his bow. 

Hero who captured the seven 
constituents of royalty of Adil 

Hero who destroyed the pride of 

Hero who defeated the troops of 

Capturer of the forces of Barid. 
Rama Raya is then said to have married Tirumalamba, the 
daughter of the Emperor Krishna Raya, and had by her two sons 
Krishnapa and Pedda Timma. 

Rama Raya also married Appalamba, the daughter of Pedda- 
nandi Raju of the Jillella family, Kondamma and Lakshmamma, 
the daughters of Timma of the POchiraju family. By his wife Kon- 
dama, Rama Raya had two sons Konda and Timma the later 
Governor of Raichur, and by his wife Lakshmamba he had Sriranga 
Raya. Of these Peda Timma fought with the Muhammadan 
armies and after driving away their horse, was opposed by the 
Nizam with his elephants, but was able to defeat him completely. 
Konda, the other son, fought with tl^e troops of the Nizam on the 
northern bank of the Krishna, and killed a very large number of 
elephants, horses and soldiers. Konda was ruling at Anegondi, 
and his enemies, after defeat, used to flock to his court with 
presents, and wait for admission to audience. 

This Konda married Tirumalamba, the daughter of SQrapa, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Cavalry (Vahadhl^vara), and had by her 
the son Rama. This Rama married three wives Narasingama, the 
daughter of Oba of the GobbQri family, Obamma, the daughter of 


Vinutnakfta Nagarjuni- 

konda Salajalaka. 

Kataka RajaghatitakTrtana. 

Rajamahendra Raja Dhanu4 

Yedulakhanu Saptangaha- 


Imadana Malaka Mana Mar- 

Kutupanamalka Dala Sind- 

Barldu Bala Harana 


Oba ol the Surapa family, and Janakamma, the daughter of Pochi- 
raju Chenna. 

Timma Raju, the other son of Aliya Rama and Governor of 
Raichur, married Pochama, the daughter of the Chief Paneraju 
(the ruler of Pan em). 

The last son of Aliya Rama, Sriranga, married Lakshmamma, 
the daughter of Raghunatha of the Pochiraju family, and had by 
her two sons who were named Pedda Venkata and Chinna Venkata. 

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[^3' Ramaydmatya Todaramalla.] 

In the introduction to this work on music the author traces the 
genealogy of his patron Rama Raya. In the Lunar race was born a 
king called SrT Ranga Raja who married Timmamba celebrated for 
her virtues. As a result of their joint penances was born to them a 
king called Rama Raja to whom Krishna Raya gave his daughter 
in marriage and was proud of being the father of a daughter in 
consequence. He went out of Vidyapura and retired to the fort of 
Gutti along with his two younger brothers ; and, after conquering 
the traitors to the kingdom, placed the helpless Sadasiva Raya on 
the Karnata throne. With his two younger brothers Timma Raya 
and Venkatadri he shone like Yudhishthira with his brothers 
Bhima and Arjuna, and with their help having conquered all 
ParasTkas (Muhammadans), filled the whole world with his fame. 
He had a palace called Ratna Kota constructed by his minister 
Ramayamatya and was struck with admiration as it excelled even 
Vaijayanta, the palace of the gods. The palace was surrounded 
by extensive gardens, adorned with statues, which contained cool 
tanks abounding with swans. 

Seated within this palace Rama Raya spent his time in the midst 
of scholars versed in sahitya (literature), music and other arts. 
From among them Ramayamatya got up and exhibited before 
them his skill in the art of music. Then Venkatadri suggested 
that Ramayamatya should write a book settling the several points 
of dispute among scholars about music. On this Ramayamatya 
remembering all that the king had done for him, for example, 
appointing him as the viceroy of the KondavTdu Rajya bordering 
on the eastern sea ; enabling him to grant many agraharas to 
Brahmans, and giving him the J^lQri Sirahasanapattana (?), resolved 
to write a book on music about the several points at dispute, and 


dedicate it to Rama Raya. The last verse in Prakarana V of the 
book says that it was completed on the lOth (Da^ami) of the Sukla 
Paksha of Sravana in the cyclic year Sadharana corresponding to 
the Saka year 1471. 

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• This is obviously the commentator, on the Sangltaratnakara of Sarngadeva, who 
calls himself KalUnatha or Chatura Kallinitha. In the preamble to this commentary he 
refers himself to Conn of Mallikarjuna (Immadideva Raya, as he calls him), the son of 
Praudha Devaraya, son of Vijaya, i.e., Devaraya II of history. 


3TT^^q^ rfsr ]^^\^ ^^]^^^^]^]^ m\^^\\^K ii ^^ ii 

Prakarana V. Last verse. 

^TT%^I^ ^^mUro^ ^^Wt^T ^^ ^ ^NK^ 





[By Keladi Basavabhupdla.] 

This encyclopaedic Sanskrit poem containing more than one 
hundred chapters or kallolas, divided into seven tarangas and 
dealing with a large variety of subjects was written by the Keladi 
chief Basava Raja. The book was completed in the year Sar- 
vadhari corresponding with the Saka year counted by the Moon (ij 
Agni (3) ritu (6) and kshma (earth) (l) or 1631 S. corresponding 
to A.D. 1709. The author has skilfully woven into the body of 
the work a history of his own ancestors who were prominent 
subordinates of the emperors of Vijayanagar. At the end of kallola 
IV the author gives the legendary account of the foundation of the 
city of Vijayanagar by the sage Vidyaranya, and the succession of 
its sovereigns from the time of Vidyaranya as well as the length of 
each reign. Until we come to the time of Rama Raya who died 
at the battle of Talikota the account is more or less legendary and 
so not useful for purposes of history. 

In taranga II of kallola V there is an account of the origin of 
the Keladi family. In the town of Keladi in the Kannada country 
there was a person named Basava, who had married a woman of the 
same name and who was a devotee of Siva. The couple had four 
sons. After the death of Basava and two of his sons, his wife was 
bringing up the two other sons who were named Chauda and 
Bhadra, and in due course had their marriages performed. Once 
when Chauda was attending to the ploughing of his land his 
ploughshare is said to have come across a large amount of buried 
treasure. With the aid of the treasure he managed to become a 
Gramadhipa (headman of a village). He then collected a small 
company of soldiers. The king of the country, on hearing of this, 
sent for Chaudappa. Much pleased with him on hearing his 
story, the king made him governor of Pulladesa with the title 
Keladi Chaudappa Nayaka. Then Chauda returned to Keladi and, 
constructing the temple of Rame^vara there, made to it large 
endowments. He had two sons who were named Sadaiiva and 
Bhadra. Having taught both of them the sevaral ^astras and arts, 
he nominated Sada^iva Nayaka as his successor and died soon 

Sadaiiva governed his province righteously, and the people 
were very happy under him. He married two wives from the elder 
of whom he had a son Dodda Sankanna Nayaka, and from the 


younger Chikka Sankanna Nayaka. He had these two sorts 
properly educated. At that time Rama Raya, the ruler of Vidya- 
nagara (Vijayanagar), wanted to fight with the rulers of Kalyana 
and Kalubarigi, and summoned Sadasiva Nayaka to his aid. He 
then sent his own army also along with Sadasiva Nayaka. Hearing 
of this the lord of Vijayapura (Bijapur) sent his own army to 
oppose. The two armies met and the Bijapur forces were defeated 
and driven away from the field by Sadasiva Nayaka. He then 
captured the valuable possessions of the enemy's army and accom- 
panied by the emperor Rama Raya, who admired his achieve- 
ments, proceeded to capture the town of Kalyan. 

During the siege of the place the emperor once summoned before 
him all his generals and throwing the weapon called ' yamadam- 
strika ' into the fort asked which of them would enter the fort and 
fetch him back the instrument. When all the other generals kept 
quiet, Sadasiva Nayaka alone was able to storm the fort and bring 
back to his master the weapon. The sovereign was greatly pleased 
with this and bestowed upon him the title Kotikolahala, and the 
governorship of the three provinces of Gutti, Barkur, and PangalCr. 
He also granted him the right to affix the title Raya Nayaka to 
his name and honoured him in other ways. Sometime after this 
the emperor sent him against the barbarian Nayakas (Dasyunaya- 
kas) of Chandragutti whom he completely vanquished. He was 
then sent against Barid Padishah (of Bidar) whom he captured 
along with the seven constituents of his royalty (Saptanga), and 
brought him as a present to his master. The emperor gave him 
the title of Satrusaptangaharana (capturer of the seven constitu- 
ents of royalty of his enemies), and honoured him in other ways. 
Some time after this a chief called Salva Timma marched against 
his enemies according to his directions."* 

Then Sadasiva was directed by the emperor to march against 
the Taulavas (people of the Tulu country) and the Keralas (the 
people of Malayalam). He defeated the people of the places 
completely and planting a pillar of victory in the country added 
all the territory to his master's empire. Then the emperor wanted 
to march against two chiefs called Yadava and Murari, in the 
country of Jalihalu. Sadasiva dissuaded the emperor from under- 
taking the expedition himself and marching against them, defeated 

* We do not know who this chief was. He is different from the famous minister 
of Krishna Raya of the same name, and the Saluva Nayaka, the rebel governor of the 
time of Achyuta Raya. The present passage merely mentions him as a subordinate of 
Sadasiva Raya Nayaka, but no definite achievements are ascribed to him. 


them both and brought them prisoners to him. The emperor then 
gave him the title Yadavamurari-Kotikolahala. After this Sada- 
^iva retired to his own province. There he made extensive 
endowments to the God Rame^vara and founded the town of Sada- 
^iva Sagara. He also founded the Agrahara called Sada^ivapura 
and built therein several temples. 

Later on when he found that the governor of Bankapura, Mada- 
rasa by name, had grown conceited he marched against him and 
capturing him, led him a prisoner to the emperor. Then his 
brother Bhadrappa Nayaka who had gone on a pilgrimage to Bena- 
res returned, and he spent some time with him. He later bestowed 
upon him the title of Immadi Sada^iva Nayaka and anointing 
him as the governor in his stead retired to the forests in the evening 
of his life. 

After Bhadrappa Nayaka ruled for some time he nominated 
the elder of his nephews Doddasankanna Nayaka as his succes- 
sor and the younger Chikkasankana Nayaka as the heir-apparent, 
and taught both of them the science of politics. 

Kallola V. Taranga 11. 

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Taranga IV. 

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^oi SOURCES OF vijaYanagar history 




[By Anantdchdrya.] 

At the close of this work the author gives a short account of his 
own preceptor and his family. In the family of the famous SrTsaila- 
purna, the maternal uncle of Ramanuja, was born Tatacharya who 
was a great scholar. He was the son of Srlnivasa Guru and was 
learned in all Sastras. He was the acharya (preceptor) of Rama 
Ray a, emperor of Vijayanagar, who ruled after Krishna Raya. On 
one occasion Rama Raya took his preceptor along with him to 
Chandragiri. At that time there was a scholar, born in the Vadhala 
Gotra, called Mahacharya (Doddayacharya). He lived at the sacred 
town of Ghatikachala (Sholighur). He had defeated all the Saiva 
scholars of Chitrakuta (Chidambaram) among whom there was the 
famous scholar Appaya Dikshita. After the victory he wanted to 
establish the worship of Govindaraja once more in the temple of 
Chidambaram from where his idols had been removed by the Chola 
king Krimikantha. This he was able to accomplish with the assist- 
ance of the emperor Rama Raya and his Guru Tatacharya.* 
Appayya Dikshita had also written a work on Advaita called 
Advaita Dlpika. In refutation of the work Mahacharya wrote the 
Chandamarutam, and Tatacharya, Panchamata Bhanjanam. 

Chapter 126. 

• Chapter XII, Ancient India by S. K. Aiyangar about the temple o^Govinda Riija 
and Vol. X, Purchus, His Pilgrimes, Chapter VII, Jesuit Observations of India, 


^^qj^n Rl%^ ^f^F^TR^f^^q: || 


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SToqifcT qrfp?r^q cT Rf^F^^^T^qrl I 


This passage says that Appayya Dlkshita wrote Advaita Dlpika. 
But the work that now exists with that name is not written by him 
but by Nrsimhasrama. We do not know whether this refers to the 
same, in which case the statement is incorrect. Else Appayya 
Dlkshita should have written another work of the same name which 
has not come down to us. 


[By Koneriindtha Kavi.] 

This Telugu poem dealing with the story of the Bhagavata was 
written by Donuru Konerunatha Kavi and dedicated to his patron 
Chinna Timma Raja of the Araviti family. This chief was born in a 
collateral branch of the same family to which Rama Raya and 
the later emperors of Vijayanagar belonged. A lengthy account of 
the ancestors of the chief is given at the beginning of the work. In 
the family of the Lunar race of kings was born the famous Araviti 
Bukka who was a staunch friend and supporter of the emperor Saluva 
Narasimha. By his wife Ballambika he had a son called Rama Raya. 
This Rama Raya was the Governor of the fortress of Kandanavolu 
(Karnul), and defended the place against the chief Savai who came 
against him with a force of 70,000 horse. Not only did he defend 
the place but sallied out of the fort and dealt severe destruction to the 
forces of the Savai. This Savai seems to refer to Yusuf AdilShah, 
the famous founder of the line of the Bijapur Sultans, who was also 
called Savoyi. Ferista tells us that he was so called after a Persian 
village of the name where he was brought up. [But the title is also 
used in India with regard to people who have had nothing to do 
with Persia. The word has also got another form Sapada in which 
form it occurs in copper-plate inscriptions, and means one and one- 
fourth. When applied to a man it signifies that he is a great 
dignitary although we are not in a position to state the exact signi- 
ficance.] Rama Raja also marched against the chief Kacha, and 
defeating him completely captured his fortress Adavani (Adoni). 
Rama Raja had a son called Timma by his wife Lakkamba. Of 
this Timma the work narrates two miraculous exploits. He is said 
to have restored the lost eyesight of a shepherd. Once when he 


was marching with his army in a mountain pass during summer his 
soldiers were suffering very much from heat and thirst. The king 
by his devotion to the God, Doni SrT Ranga Raja, caused a spring 
to rise out of the mountain-side and was able to appease the suffer- 
ings of his soldiers. 

He defeated Edula Khan (Adil Khan) at the battle of Manuva 
(Manve). He also marched against the rebel governor of Adavani 
(Adoni) and brought him a prisoner before his sovereign Vira 
Narasimha Raya and was presented by him with a Gandapendera 
(Anklet) in appreciation of this service. He was also the patron of 
the Telugu poem Balabhagavatam. He married Gopama Devi, and 
had by her several sons as Tirumala, Vitthala, Chinna Timma and 
Papa Timma. He had also another wife called Tirumala Devi by 
whom he got the sons Konappa and Sri Rangaraja. 

Of these sons the eldest son Tirumala constructed mantapas, 
choultries and a garden, and made arrangements for several forms 
of worship to the God Nrsimha at Garudadri (Ahobilam). He also 
constructed the big tank of the temple of Bhargava Nrsimha at 

His younger brother Chinna Timma was the most famous of all 
brothers. He was a great conqueror and the Chola, Kerala, 
Pandya, and Tiruv'adi sovereigns used to wait upon him with pre- 
sents of horses of various breeds, gold and precious gems. He 
restored to the Tiruvadi (the king of Travancore) his lost territory, 
and was called Tiruvadi Rajyasthapanacharya. He also defeated 
the Pandya sovereign who had fought against the Tiruvadi. 




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yAdavabhyudaya vyakhya. 

[By Appayya Dtkshita.] 
This is a commentary on the Sanskrit poem Yadavabhyudayam 
of the great SrT Vaishnava teacher Vedanta De^ika, by Appayya 
Dlkshita, the famous Saiva scholar. In the beginning he says 


that he wrote it at the instance of his patron Chinna Timma Raya, 
and gives the genealogy of his family. In the Lunar race of 
Kshatriyas was born a famous king called Rama Raja. By his 
wife GopT Devi he had a son called Timma Raja. This Timma 
Raja had many sons on account of his devotion to Venkate^a, the 
god worshipped at Tirupati. Of these Chinna Timma became 
famous on account of his valour and achievements. He planted 
a pillar of victory, in token of his conquest, near the mountains of 
Malaya (the Western Ghats in the Tinnevelly District and 
Travancore). He was also a good scholar and patron of poets. 
Once he heard the poem Yadavabhyudayam read out to him by 
scholars, and being struck with its many merits directed the 
scholar Appayya Dikshita to write a commentary on the work. 

The prince who is described in this extract, was a first cousin 
of the well-known Aliya Rama Raya, who was killed in the battle 
of Talikota. During the latter*s reign he led an expedition to the 
extreme south of the Peninsula against the Pandya and Tiruvadi 
(Kerala) chiefs; and, having subdued them completely, he planted 
a pillar of victory on the banks of the Tamraparni. 

n^^A 3Tnq^c5=^% TO^ ^ ^Cr ii ^ n 


(^ N rs' 

1%^ gTcf^^ f^^m ^\ ?q^mri ii U ii 


[By Siddhiraju Timma Bhiipdla.] 

This Telugu poem dealing with the lives of the SrTvaishnava 
Alvars in Telugu, was written by Siddhiraju Timma Raju, the 
nephew of Aliya Rama Raya and viceroy of KondavTdu. These 
two verses are taken from the beginning of the work. From these 
we get this information : Timma Raju was the great grandson of 
Siddhiraju, grandson of Ananta, and son of Obala and Kona- 
mamba, the sister of the princes Aliya Rama, Tirumala and 
Venkatadri. Timma Raju fought with a Muhammadan army and 
defeated it near the river Krishna. He had also a younger brother 
Ranga Raja. 

While viceroy of Kondavldu, he was, one day, in the company 
of Vaishnava scholars and in conversation with them about the 
stories of Vishnu was impelled to write a Telugu poem on the 
lives of the Alvars. 

(Vide note under Gitagovinda Vyakhya Srutiranjani.) 

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[By Tirumalaraya.] 

This commentary, SrutiranjanI on the Gita Govinda, wa^ 
written according to some manuscripts by the Emperor Tirumala- 
raya and according to others by Cherukuri Lakshmldhara."^ In the 
introduction to the work he gives a short account of his family, 
agreeing with those already given. 

^mi5=q^?T ^JT ?^ %^\^ ^\k^^. ii 

* CherukQri Lakshmldhara is also the author of the commentary called Abhl^tartha- 
dayini oi> Jayadeva's Prasannaraghava Nataka which he dedicated to Siddhiraju 
Timmaraju, a nephew of Tirumala Raya and his brothers. Cherukuri Lakshmldhara 
also wrote Shac^lhahhttchancrika, the Trakrit grammar and several other works. 


g^q^T^^T ^^ f?§ ^n^ ^"^m] ii 

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Tirumala Raya defeated the forces of the Sapada (Adil Khan), 
Kutb Shah and the Nizam Shah. He married Vengalamba and 
had the sons RaghunStha, Srlranga, Rama and Venkata. Of 
these Srlranga Raya is said to have led expeditions into the 
territories of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golkonda, and to have 
resuscitated the glory of the Karnata empire which had waned. 
Srlranga Raya married Timmamamba. 

His younger brother Rama is said to have defeated the troops 
of the Nizam Shah. He married Narasingama and had by her the 
sons Tirumala and Srlranga. Of these the younger Srlranga was 


adopted by the emperor Venkatapati Raya and became the heir- 
apparent (Yuva Raja). 


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[By RamarajahhiishaJUi, usually known as Bhattu Murii.] 

This is an excellent Telugu poem written by the poet Bhattu 
Murti and dedicated to the Vijayanagar Emperor Tirumala Raya. 
The poet is also called Ramarajabhushana (jewel of the court of 
Rama Raja) because he was in high favour in the court of the 
Emperor Rama Raya. At the beginning of the poem he gives an 
account of the family ofthe sovereign. Rama Raja of the Lunar 
race of kings had three sons Timma, Konda and Srlranga. Of 
these Srlranga became famous, and had by his wife Timmamba 
five sons KOna, Timma, Rama, Tirumala and Venkata. 

Of these Rama Raya was the most famous. Before his corona- 
tion he had to flee from the capital (Vijayanagar) with his two 
brothers to Penukonda, and conquering that place and Adavani 
defeated the armies of the cruel Salaka (Salaka Raju Timma, the 
brother-in-law and minister of Achyuta, who rebelled after the 
death of Achyuta Raya to prevent the succession of Sadasiva 
Raya). Rama finally killed him and restored once more the empire 
of Vijayanagar to its ancient glory. The Nizam, Kutupasahi (Kutb 
Shah) and the Sapada (Adil Shah) fled to forests at his march, or 
rendered abject submission to him. Rama Raya made war on 
the Nizam (of Ahmadnagar) and captured from him the city of 
Kalyan, andT^ forced him to repudiate his friendship with Ibharam 
(Ibrahim Kutb Shah). Venkatadri, the last of the brothers, was 
also a famous general and dealt destruction to the armies of the 
Muhammadans.that opposed him. After defeating Barid in battle 
he captured his standard and other State insignia, and brought 
them in triumph to the capital. He also drove the armies of the 
Nizam up to the Godavari which was in floods. The Nizam Shah 
crossed the river in a small boat. With the help of his younger 
brothers Tirumala and Venkatadri, Rama Raya conquered the 
country as far as the Godavari and is said to have washed the 
bloodstains off his sword in the waters of the river. 

Rama Raya was succeeded by his younger brother Tirumala. 
Tirumala drove the Nizam and his army from the battlefield. He 
also defeated the armies of the Muhammadans sent against him, 
and gained a complete victory at Penukonda. He married Ven- 
galamba and had four sons Raghunatha, Srlranga Raya, Rama and 
Venkata. Of these Raghunatha defeated the armies of the Nizam 
Shah near the river Krishna, and drove them to the north of the 

VasuCharitramu iit 

river. The next brother Sriranga was nominated Yuvaraja (heir- 
apparent) by Tirumalaraya and was looking after the affairs of 
the whole empire. The next brother Rama was governing in peace 
the whole country from the Kaveri to the sea with his capital at the 
island town of Seringapatam. The last of the four brothers Ven- 
katapati was governing as viceroy the kingdom of Chandragiri, 
having under his authority many feudatory princes. 

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This verse referring to the emperor Tirumala Raya who suc- 
ceeded to the throne after the battle of Talikota is taken from an 
anthology of the verses of various Telugu poets called Kavicha- 
matkarapradarsini. Bhattu Murti or as he is otherwise called 
Ramarajabhushana (the adorner of the court of Rama Raya) is said 
to have been its author. Once Tirumala Raya asked the poets 
that were assembled at his court to compose verses in description 
of him charging them at the same time to be true to nature and not 
to exaggerate. In this verse Tirumala and his wife when they are 
sitting together are compared to the God Siva ; and Tirumala alone 
to Sukracharya, the preceptor of the Asuras. Siva is described 
in one of his forms as half man and half woman (Ardhanarls- 
vara) and to have three eyes, the ordinary two with *' the eye of 
wisdom." When Tirumala and his wife sit side by side they had 
only three eyes between them. Sukracharya, the preceptor of the 
demons, is said to have only one eye, the other having been blinded 
by God Vishnu when he took the form of the Dwarf (Vamana). 


Both Siva and Sukracharya are considered to be omniscient by 
Sanskrit writers and are termed Sarvagiia (all-knowing). The 
fact that Tirumala Raya had only one eye is also recorded by 
Caesar Frederick (Purchas, His Pilgrimes, Vol. X, page 93). He is 
there said to have lost it during the battle of Talikota, A.D. 1565. 



Venkatadri defeated in battle the armies of the Barid and 
captured his insignia of royalty and military band. In a pitched 
battle he dealt destruction to the combined troops of the Nizam 
Adil Khan and Kutb Shah, and drove away all the three chiefs 
from the field. Venkatadri ruled with his capital at the town of 
Kandanol (Karnul), and his defeated enemies used to send him 
presents of elephants, horses, gold and precious stones to that 
place. Venkatadri performed many danas (gifts) as ordained in 
the Sastras. He married two wives Rangamma and Krishnamma 
and had two sons Rangappa and Rama Raja. 

Of these Rangappa married three wives — Konetamma, Timmam- 
ma and Chevvamma. By Konetamma he had a son Venkatadri. 
By Timmamma he got the son Gopala. Gopala ruled a province 
from his capital Kandanol (Karnul). Gopala married Vengamma, 
the daughter of GobbUri Giriyappa, and Timmamma, the daughter 
of Jillella Ranga. 



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[O/Bhattu MurtL] 

This is a work on poetics in Telugu written by Bhattu Murti, 
the author of Vasucharitram, who is also called Ramarajabushana. 
The work is dedicated to Pochiraju Narasaraju, and therefore 
called Narasabhupallyam. As usual, the author gives an account 
of his patron's family and achievements at the beginning of the 
work. In the Lunar race of Kshatriyas were born the five brothers 
Kona, Timma, Rama, Yeratimma and Venkata. Of these Rama 
was the most famous. He saved the Karnata (Vijayanagar) empire 
from destruction by making war on and destroying the traitor 
Salakaya Timma. He protected the Kutb Mulk when he submit- 
ted to him, and helped him to get back his lost kingdom. He 
preserved the Sapada (Adil Shah) in his kingdom on his agreeing 
to pay him tribute and hand over Raichur and Mudgal. When 
the Nizam (of Ahmadnagar) sought refuge with him he lent him his 
help and established him firmly in his kingdom. Having done all 
these he ruled the empire in prosperity as Rama of old. 

Venkatadri fought a battle with the Barid and captured his 
Saptanga (the seven constituents of royalty). He also fought with 
the Sapada (Adil Shah) near the banks of the Bhimarathi (Bhima) 
and, driving him from the battlefield, compelled him to sue for 


terms of peace by prostrating himself before him and touching his 
feet with his head. These five brothers had a sister Lakkamamba 
who married Oba Raja of the Pochiraju family. The couple had 
a son called Nrsimha who is the patron of the present work. This 
Narasa married Tirumalamba, the daughter of Tirumala,* son of 
Rama Raju Timma Raju, and had by her a son, Sriranga Raja. 

Narasa is said to have fought with the Barid and captured all 
the valuable articles of his camp equipage. He is said to have 
established Pinana Mulk (.?) on his throne, and to have been a 
devotee of the God Nrsimha. He had his capital at the fort of 
Toragal, and was a good bowman. He is said to have shot at the 
fish in the yantra like Arjuna. In one of his invasions he marched 
upon the towns of Makkha, Manduva (Manve) and Panduva 

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* An account of this family is given in the extract from the Telugu poem Bala- 
bhagavatam of Konerunatha Kavi, No. 6f above. 



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[^^^ Ekdmrandtha.] 

This Sanskrit work dealing with the story of Krishna's marriage 
with JambavatI was written by EkSmranatha, a poet born in the 
province of Kondavldu. The poet travelled all the way to Chenna- 
patna, in the territory of the viceroyalty of Seringapatam, and 
dedicated it to the governor of the district Immadi Anku^a. At 
the beginning of the work as usual the poet gives a lengthy 
account of the family of his patrons. 

Among the members of the fourth caste (Sudras) was a family 
which became famous as the Rana vam^a. In that family was 


born Timma who married Mallamma. Their descendants are 
represented in the following genealogical table :— 

Timma =- Mallamma. 
Singa = Gangamma. 
Jagadeka Raya or Pedajagadeka Raya = Giryamha. 



1 ! 

Jagadeka Jagatapa 
Raya. Raya. 


= Lingamma, 
daughter of Virappa. ' 

1 1 
= Vitthalamma. = Lakshmamma, 

daughter of Raghuvara. 


i i i 
Kumarajagadeka Immadi Nrsimha. 

Raya. Anku^a. 

Venkatapati. Kastiiri. Siva. 

Of these chiefs Jagadeka Raya or Pedda Jagadeka Raya is 
said to have fought with the ruler of Burana Nagari (the city of 
Burhan, Nizam Shah) and, defeating him, to have captured in- 
numerable horses and elephants. Of his sons Jagadeka Raya was 
the most famous. In a battle he is said to have captured as 
prisoner a Muhammadan chief Chittakhan, defeated the troops of 
Nuru Khan and MQrtija Khan, and killed the chief Sujata Khan. 

Ankusa, the last of the sons of Jagadeka Raya, is said to have 
married Lingamma, the daughter of the prince Virappa, whom we 
are not able to identify.* 

^rf^Tim^F fTrJi^w^T^ ^^t-^Is^r n 

* For fuller extracts from this and the next work, see Nos. 11535 and 11S16 of 
the Madras Manuscripts Library, Dcs. Cat., Vol. XX, 



[B^' Ekamrandtha.] 

This is another poem written by Ekamranatha, and dedicated 
to the chief Immadi Ankusa. In this work also he gives a long 
account of his patron's family. Referring to the achievements of 
Jagadeka Raya, he says that he protected the fort of Ghanagiri or 
Penukonda by defeating the two chiefs Murtija Khan and Nuru 
Khan, captured the chief Chitta Khan and, killing the chief 
Sujata Khan, gave protection to the Chief Cherna Mulk. This 
siege of Penukonda must have taken place during one of those 
frequent invasions of Vijayanagar territory after the battle of 
Talikota and the sieges of the later capital, Penukonda. 

The chiefs that are called Jagadeva Raya and Jagadeka Raya 
in this family have nothing to do with the-traitor Jagga Raya, 
brother-in-law of the emperor Venkatapati Raya who massacred 
the royal family after the death of Venkatapati Raya as will be 
shown in the sequel. The traitor Jagga Raya was a Kshariya 
and belonged to the Gobburi family. This Jagadeva Raya is 


distinctly described as a Sudra belonging to the RSna family. 
His capital was at Chennapatna while the traitor's family was 
somewhere about the North Arcot district. 

N.B. —Lewis Rice says (Ep. Carn., Mysore 1, Introduction, page 28) that Jagadeva 
Ray a of Chennapatna defeated the Muhammadans and drove them from Penukonda in 
A.D. 1577. But he seems wrong ia saying that he was the son-in-law of the Vijaya- 
nagar Emperor. His wife was Giriyamba, but her parentage is not high enough for 
mention in the two works, Jambavati Kalyanam and Satyaparinayam. 

• * « « 

^"tr^ll'T^^ ^^m^T|#I ^f^^T^H?^' 


[By Rdyasam Venkatapati.] 

This Telugu poem was written by * Rayasam Venkatapati, an 
officer in the court of the Emperor Srlranga Raya. After his office 
the poet's family was called Rayasam (despatch-writer). The 
poet says that he was the Nirvahaka (manager) of the Sakaladhi- 
patya (the all-secretariat functions) of the Karnata empire. 
Srlranga Raya is said to have defeated the large armies of Kutb 
Shah and captured his royal insignia. The poet says that he was 
presented by Srlranga Raya with a village, the office Rayasam 
and with gold and jewelled ornaments. 

♦ There is a Sanskrit drama called Kuvalaya Vilasa written by a poet called Rayasa 
Ahobala. This poet also says that he was a minister of Srlranga Raya. We do not 
know what, if any, connexion there was between him and Rayasam Venkatapati, the 
tittthor 9( the Telugn poem Lakshmlvilasam. 


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The son of Hanumappa Nayudu, called Immadi Hampa Nayudu, 
succeeded his father and governed his province from Saka 1506, 
-Svabhanu, to Saka 1518, Manmatha, and died at Bukkaraya- 

During the administration of his son Malakappa Nayudu, Srl- 
ranga Raya (the son of Tirumala Raya), proceeded towards 
Chandragiri in the course of a royal tour. The army of the 
Padishah again marched from the north to seize Vijayanagar, and 
halted at Kalyan, Kalbarga and the neighbourhood. When Srl- 
ranga Raya learnt this he rapidly returned to his capital and 
marched with his army against Kalyan and Kalbarga. He sum- 
moned Hande Malakappa Nayudu, the Governor of Bukka- 
samudram, and with the assistance of his troops fought with the 
Muhammadan invaders and routed them. 

Afterwards this Malakappa Nayudu took leave of the emperor, 

and constructing a new town at Bukkarayasamudram ruled there 

till the cyclic year Vikari. Then the Muhammadan Sultans of the 

north again invadad the territories of Vijayaaagar, and war 


ensued. In the course of this war Sriranga Raya was defeated 
and taken prisoner, and the-Mussalmans conquered the whole 
country north of Penukonda, and ruled it. 

On hearing about this defeat of Sriranga Raya, Hande Mala- 
kappa Nayudu thinking that the Muhammadan fortunes were 
destined to rise and his master's to wane, transferred his allegi- 
ance to them and behaved obediently in their service. So they 
showed great favour to him and bestowed upon him the lands 
formerly granted to him by the Vijayanagar sovereigns, Bukka- 
patnam in the Elamanchi country, and Anantasagaram along with 
the hamlets under them, with the title ' Padishah Vazir '. 

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The following inscription from Ahobalam is dated in the Saka 
year 1506, Tarana, corresponding to A.D. 1584-5, Thursday, the 
fourteenth day of the bright fortnight of the month Vaisakha. It 
says that while SrTranga Raya was ruling with his capital at Penu- 
konda, Rachappa Garu, the agent of Sathagopa Jiyyangaru of the 
Ahobalam Mutt, and the inhabitants (Sthanamvaru) of Ahobalam 
set up the stone inscription in favour jof the Telugu Chola chief 
Mahamandalesvara Kondraju Venkataraju *, the son of Timma 

It records that in the cyclic year Bahudhanya, preceding the 
date of the inscription, i.e., A.D. 1578-79, Vibhuramuvaru (Ibrahim 
Kutb Mulk, the Sultan of Golkonda) along with Handevaru (the 
chiefs of the Hande family)! had invaded the Vijayanagar country, 
and laying waste the district round Ahobalam, occupied it for five 
or six years. Then the religious teacher SrT Van Sathagopa Svami,t 
who was seventh in apostolic succession from the first Van 
Sathagopa upon whom the God of Ahobalam himself bestowed the 
robes of a Sanyasi, and the immediate disciple of the teacher, SrT 
Parankusamahamuni, who was highly respected by Mukunda 
Deva § , and who had established the idols of the Vaishnava 

* He was the chief to whom the Tehigu poems Rettamatam and Kamandakam were 

t The proper name of the Hande chief was Malakappa Nayudu. He is said in 
extract No. 73 to have first fought on the side of Sriranga Raya, but after Sriranga's defeat 
and capture by the Muhammadans, to have transferred his allegiance to them. 

X Hi was the author of the Sanskrit drama Vasantikaparinayam. 

§ This Mukunda Deva seems to be the saine as Mukunda Harichandan who usurped 
the kingdom of Orissa and set up for some time as an independent soiereign. He was 
an ally of Aliya Rama Raya of Vijayanagar. It was through his influence that the 
teacher Parankusa established the worship of the Alvars at Purushottama or Jagannath. 
This statement is corroborated by a passage in the Sanskrit drama, Vasantikaparinayam. 


Alvars at PurushOtamam (Jagannath), approached the emperor* 
Sriranga Raya, and, reporting to him the sad condition of the 
temple of Ahobalam and the surrounding country, requested him to 
recover the district from the Muhammadans and restore the 
temples to their ancient glory. 

On this the emperor Sriranga Raya prepared himself to lead 
an army to the district in person and drive out the enemy. But 
the 'High Priest' said that he need not lead the expedition in 
person, but might entrust it to his subordinates Kondaraju Venkata- 
raju and Kondaraju Tirumalaraju who were designated by the 
God of Ahobalam, in a dream, as the fittest persons to lead the 
attack and restore the temples. The emperor was struck with 
this, and presented the chiefs with jewels and titles, and ordered 
them to march against the enemy. Then the chiefs started with 
their army along with the ' Priest ' and having defeated the 
Hande chiefs and the other allies of Ibrahim, made vast additions 
to the temple and bestowed on the temples more than their 
former prosperity. As a return for this the ' High Priest ' Satha- 
gopa Svami granted to the chief and his descendants certain 
rights and privileges in the temple. 

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[By Ponnikanti Telaganarya.] , , ^ 

This poem written in unmixed Telugu was written by the poet 
Ponnikanti Telaganarya, and dedicated to the Muhammadan Chief 
Amin Khan, General of Ibharam (Ibrahim Kutb Shah). Amin 
Khan's elder brother Gatata Khan is said to have gone to the court 
of Akbar, and to have highly pleased him by his conversation. 
He marched against a certain Visvanatha Dev, and, having defeated 
him, captured a large number of elephants and horses. He went 
to the court of the Adil Khan several times and fetched the tribute 
he consented to pay his master. He also fought the Nizam Shah 
and Madanamulk Barid and compelled them to pay tribute to his 
suzerain. The kings of the Karnata (Vijayanagar) used to send 
him valuable presents, and Gatat Khan is said to have stood high 
in the estimation of Ibrahim Kutb Shah. He was a very pious 
man and was able to understand and write several languages as 
Arabic, Persian, Gujarati, Telugu, Kannoji and Aremaccha (?). 

Of his brother Fazl Khan, the work says that on one occasion 
he went with a large army to the territory of SrTranga Raya, and 
(without any fighting) by negotiation took SrTranga Raya to 
his suzerain and brought about a treaty between them, for which 
achievement he was greatly applauded. Fazl Khan is said to have 
got the following presents from various sovereigns, palanquins 
from the Nizam-ul-Mulk (of Ahmadnagar), Pegu ponies from the 
Adil Khan (of Bijapur), elephants from the chiefs of the seven 
Madems (the hilly tracts of the Orissa border), boxes of pearls from 
the emperor of Vijayanagar. Fazl Khan gave the valuables to his 
sovereign Ibrahim (Ibharam) and stood high in his estimation. 

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[53; Addanki Gangadhara Kavi,] 

This Telugu poem of Addanki Gangadhara Kavi is dedicated 
to Ibrahim Kutb Mulk, who conquered the northern province of 
Vijayanagar after the battle of Talikota. Kutb Mulk is said to 
have defeated the Savai (Adil Khan) in the west and occupied the 
town of Koilkonda. He captured Panugal and other forts after 
defeating a Muhammadan chief whose name appears corrupted 
here as Tamarimilla Khan. In the east he defeated the Uriya 
Patras and captured from them the town of Kambhamumettu 
(Khammamet), and on the north he defeated the Barid and captured 
his fort Metuku (Metk). He also captured the fort of Kondapalli 
after a signal victory over the ruler of Cuttack (Gajapati). He 
compelled the chief Chitaph Khan to cross the Godavari. He saw 
the backs of (routed) the army of the Barid at a place which is not 
clear in the manuscript. He extended his conquests on the east 
as far as the mouth of the river Godavari and washed the blood- 
stains on his sword there. When Haidar Khan, his general, laid 
siege to and took the big fort of Kondapalli, he captured alive the 
enemy Harischandra, general of the Orissa king (possibly the same 
as Mukunda Harischandra, the founder of the new dynasty of 

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tapatisamvaranam 239 





The following inscription is taken from the Mackenzie Records 
in the Madras Government Oriental Manuscripts Library. The 
inscription is dated Saka 1514, Nandana, corresponding to A.D. 
1592-93, Vai4akha, third day of the bright fortnight, Thursday. 
The Persian equivalent of this date is also given. The inscription 
says that Hazarat Ibrahim Padishah proceeded against the 
Vijayanagar territory in the Saka year 1502, Vikrama, correspond- 
ing to A.D. 1580-81, Chaitra, fourteenth day of the dark fortnight 


Tuesday, captured Uddagiri (Udayagiri), and driving* Venkata 
Raju from the place, captured successively the fortresses of 
Vinukonda, Bellamkonda, Tangeda and Kondavldu, and was ruling 
the whole of the Karnata (Vijayanagar) province of Kondavldu. 
Ibrahim Padishah's son Muhammad Kuli Padishah was crowned 
on Rabi, 21, A.H. 988 ; June 2. A.D. 1580.! 

In the cyclic year Khara, Balle Raya, Sabja, Alam Khan, Khan 
Khan and other subordinates of the Padishah revolted, and 
captured the district of Kondavldu. Thereupon the Hazarat 
Padishah sent his General Mulk Amin Mulk against the rebel 
chiefs from Golkonda. All the rebel chiefs fled before Amin 
Mulk, who crossed the Krishna, and going to Kondavldu once 
more established order there by punishing the traitors and reward- 
ing the faithful. 


•This Venkataraju seems lo be no other than Sriranga's younger brother Venkatapati 
who succeeded him in the Vijayanagar empire. 

flam obliged to Mr. G. Yazdani, m.a., Superintendent, H.E.H. the Nizam's 
State Archaeological Department, for verifying this date which, according to him, agrees 
with that of Ferishia and that on the epitaph of Ibrahim ^utb Shah. {£j>. IndO'Mosle- 
mica^ 1907-8, p. 24). 


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[By Chennamardju.] 

The author of this work Chennamaraju says that his cousin 
Tammaya Mantri was the right-hand man of the emperor Srlranga 
Raya, and was presented by him with elephants, horses, palanquins 
and white umbrellas. He was also a minister of the emperor 
Venkatapati Raya, and compelled recalcitrant chiefs to go to him 
and accept his suzerainty. 

His other cousin Lingamantri is said to have saved the life of 
the General Pemmasani Pedda Vira. A maddened elephant 
rushed on his palanquin, and, by dealing it a severe blow with 
his spear, Linga averted its course in the battle at Midigesi. * 

* The two chiefs Pemmasani Pedda Vira and Pemmasani Timma were probably the 
descendants or relatives of the general of Krishna Deva Raya, Pemmasani Ramalinga 
who exhibited great valour in capturing the camp of the Bahmani Sultans in the battle of 
Raichur. They may also be related to Pemmasani Timma Nayudu, the Viceroy of 
Kondavidu, about the close of the reign of the emperor Aliya Rama Raya. The Mac- 
kenzie records contain copy of a copper-plate grant by the emperor Aliya Rama Kaya 
of the village Garikapadu in the Guntur district to the famous scholar and philosopher 
Annambhatta. The Viceroy of Kondavidu in whose province the village was situated 
was Pemmasani Timma. 



The author also says that his patron Pemmasani Timma had 
the titles Manne Martanda, Gandaraditya and Gandaraganda. 
Once the poet carried from the emperor Venkatapati Raya the 
several insignia of his position to his patron Pemmasani Timma. 
These were the triumphal banner of Garudanarayana, a costly red 
cloth with golden flowers worked upon it, a Turayi (Tiara), an 
elephant, a costly horse and a necklace called Vlra Malahari, Tali- 
chaukattu (a square piece-pendant on the breast), bangles made of 
pearls, the anklet called Gandapenderam, and a sword ornamented 
with a tassel at the hilt. Of these the general presented the poet 
Chennapradhana with the white turban, the white chanks, the 
palanquin and Talichaukattu. 

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* # # # 




Venkatapati Raya, his adopted son 
and kis children. 

The following extract from the RamaraJTyamu says that 
Venkatapati Raya collected his army and drove the son of Ibharam 
(Ibrahim Kutb Shah) who had invaded his territory, as far as Gol- 
konda. He chased his army back and defeated it on the banks of 
the Pennar. The water of the river was coloured red with the 
blood of the Muhammadan soldiers killed in the battle* When the 
son of Ibrahim came as a suppliant seeking terms of peace, he 
settled with him that the Krishna should thenceforward form the 
boundary between their respective territories. He also defeated 
some enemies at Nandela. This may refer to the revolt of the 
Nandyal chief Krishna Raja who revolted at this time and was 
subdued. This revolt is referred to in the Siddhout inscription of 
Venkatapati (vide extract 81). Venkatapati Raya's capital was at 

He married four wives — Venkatamma, Obamma, the daughter 
of Jillella Ranga Raja, Krishnamma, the daughter of JilleHa 
Krishna Raju, and Kondamma, the daughter of GobbQri Oba. 



Venkatapati Raya adopted Sriranga RSya, the son of his 
brother Rama, who is also called Chikka Raya, and anointed him 
as the heir-apparent (Yuva Raja). Chikka Raya married Obamma, 
the daughter of Jillella Narasimha, and got by her the son Rama 
Deva Raya. 

This Rama Deva Raya was the prince rescued by the chief 
Yachama Nayaka from being massacred by Jagga Raya along with 
his parents and brothers. The war that ensued after the massacre, 
between the young prince Rama Deva Raya assisted by Yachama 
Nayaka, and Jagga Raya, the traitor, is compared to the Maha- 
bharata war, and the several chiefs that took part in the war to the 
heroes of the Mahabharata. 

Singa Nrpatl * is compared to Bhima, Rayappa to Arjuna, 
Ayyana and Chenna to the twins Nakula and Sahadeva, while 
Rama Deva Raya is compared to Yudhisthira. These chiefs were 
assisted by Raghunatha Nayaka (of Tanjore) who is likened to 
Krishna. Their enemies Chenchu, Virappa, Yachana and Maka 
Raju are respectively compared to Dus^asana, Sakuni, Salya and 
Karna, while the vile Jagga Raya who was killed in the battle is 
compared to Duryodhana. 

After the war Rama Deva Raya ruled the empire in peace. He 
married two wives — Obamma, the daughter of Pochiraju Rama 
Raju, and Kondamma, the daughter of the Gobburi chief Yatiraju. 
Rama Deva Raya is also said to have performed many danas 
(gifts) as laid down in the Sastras. 

* The suggestion has recently been made that Singa, Rayappa, Ayyana and Chenna 
were the brothers of Rama Raya, since they are all compared to the five Pandavas. This 
interpretation is not tenable in the face of Barrado's statement and the text of the two 
poems Riighunathabhudayam and Sahitya Ratnakara that Sriranga Chikka Raya and all 
his children except Rama were killed by Jagga Raya, 


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[By Tarigoppula Mallana.] 

The author says that his elder brother Tarigoppula Datta Mantri 
was a minister (Karyakarta) of the emperor Venkatapati Raya,son 
of Tirumala Raya. He was a patron of poets and excelled in 
diplomacy the ministers of all other kings. All the members of 
the emperor's court used to extol him for his patronage and help- 
fulness to them on various occasions. 

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This inscription is found on the wall of the ruined fortifications 
of Siddhout. It consists of one Sanskrit verse and a long sTsa- 
malika. The Sanskrit verse says that, in the Saka year counted by 
the horses (7), the eyebrows (2), the arrows (5) and the earth (l), 
i.e., 1527 corresponding to A.D. 1605, Matla Ananta extended the 
fortifications of Siddhavatam (Siddhout) which had been captured 
by his father in the battle of Utukuru. 

The Telugu portion says that in the Saka year 1527, Vi^vavasu, 
when Vira Venkatapati Raya was ruling from Chandragiri, Matla 
Ananta constructed the fortifications round the town of Siddhout 
which had been captured by his father Ella, after defeating in 
battle the chief Kondraju Tirupati Raju. 

The inscription also gives a long account of the achievements 
of Ananta. He was born in the solar race of Kshatriyas, and 
belonged to the family of Deva Choda and had the titles Aivara- 
ganda, MannehamvTra and Rachabebbuli. He killed on the 
battlefield the chief Ravela Velikonda Venkatadri. He was the 
conqueror in the battle of Jambulamadaka (Jammalamadugu) and 
reduced the fort of Cuttack. He instilled fear in the mind of 
Krishnamma of Nandyal and was like the right-hand of the emperor 
of Karnata (Vijayanagar). He defeated the Chief Kondraju Ven- 
katadri * and captured from him the town of Chennur. He was 
the author of several works, as Kakutsthavijayam, which were 
highly praised by scholars. He constructed the large tank, Ella- 
maraju Cheruvu, after his father, t He protected the flying armies 

♦ This is the chief who, according to extract 73 above, orerthrew the Hande chief, 
(Malakappa Nayudu), who held Ahobalam and surrounding country in the interests of 
Ibrahim Kutb Shah. Kondraju Tirupati Raju referred to above was an elder brother of 
this Venkata according to Rettamatam, a work of Hindu Meteorology translated from 
the Kannada original, 

t Rai Sahib Mr. H. Krishna Sastrigal considers that this is in reference to the battle 
fought against Jagga Raya after the massacre of the royal family by him, in which the 
Madura Nayak took the side of Jagga Raya. But the date of the present inscription 
A.D. 1605 is too early for that ; for the massacre and revolt took place after the death of 
the emperor Venkatapati Raya who lived for about ten ye:irs after this inscription, and 
died in the year A.D. 1614. The invasion here referred to may be the one mentioned in 
the Pudukkola plates of Srivallabha and Varatunga Rama Pandya, or that referred to in 
the Chikkadeva Raya Vamsavali when the Madura Nayak revolted and when Venkata- 
pati Raya sent his nephew from Seringapatam against him. The nephew proved a 
traitor to his uncle and made a treaty with the Nayaka without any reference to Ven- 
katapati Raya who had to undertake a fresh invasion on that account. Cf. Ancient 
India, p. 274. 


of the Madura chief from destruction. In the battle of Penukonda 
he destroyed the pride of the Muhammadan (Yavana) Padishah. 

Matli Ananta was the son of Ellamaraju and Rangama, and his 
son was called Matli Tiruvengala. 

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The first verse says that Appaya Dlkshita wrote his work on 
Alankara called KuvalySnanda at the instance of the Emperor 
Venkatapati Raya. 

The second verse, the author of which is so far unknown, refers 
to the patronage which the famous scholar Appaya Drkshita had 


at the court of Chinna Bomma Nayaka, Viceroy of Velur, during the 
reign of Venkatapati Raya. It describes the ceremony of Kanaka- 
bhishekam, or bathing in gold which Chinna Bomma Nayaka* 
performed in order to honour the scholarship of Appaya Dikshita. 
He is said to have with his own hands poured the gold coins out of 
the vessel. 

from Kuvalayananda. 



[By Anantarya.] 

This extract from Prapannamrtam says that, after the time of 
Ramaraya, there was an emperor of Vi jayanagar, Venkatapati. He 
was a great and pious sovereign. He became a disciple of the 
Srlvasihnaya teacher Lakshmikumara Tatacharya. He entrusted 
the whole kingdom to his preceptor and himself led a life of retire- 
ment doing service to him like Kulasekhara of old. When the 
emperor himself became a disciple of Tatacharya, a large number 
of the subjects became Vaishnavas. 

• Velftri Linga, the donor of the Vilapakam Grant of Venkata II (A.D. 1601) was 
the son of Chinna Bomma. Linga was killed and his capital taken possession of by 
Damarla Chenna after whom the town of Madras was named Chennapattapam. 



[By Ndrdyana.] 

This poem dealing with the life of the famous Madhva teacher 
Raghavendrasvami gives a short account of each of his predeces- 
sors in the pontifical seat of Madhva and a detailed account of the 
doings of Raghavendra and his teacher Sudhlndra. 

Sarga II. — Vijaylndra succeeded Surendra as teacher. He was 
well versed in several arts (vidyas) and was honoured by the 
Emperor Rama Raya with bathing in jewels (Ratnabhishekam) for 
his scholarship. The emperor also presented him with several 
villages. He wrote works on various religious subjects. Vija- 
ylndra was succeeded by Sudhlndra. He was also a great scholar 
and travelled over the country controverting the teachings of 
other religions. He conquered all his opponents at the court of the 
emperor Venkatapati Raya, and was presented by the sovereign 
with the conch and other emblems of victory. He lived at the 
town of Kumbhakonam on the banks of the Kaveri, and was 
honoured by RaghunStha of Tanjore with Kanakabhishekam 
(bathing in gold). 

Sarga III. — While referring to the ancestors of Raghavendra 
on the maternal side, the author says that Krishna, the greatgrand- 
father of his mother, was a great scholar and musician who had 
specialised in the art of playing upon the Vina. He taught the 
emperor Krishna Raya how to play on the Vina and got from him 
as gurudakshina (present to the preceptor) costly pearl necklaces 
and jewels. 

His grandson Timmanarya lived at the capital Vijayanagar and 
was a great scholar and artist. 


Sarga IV. — At Tanjore the great Yagnanarayana Dikshita* who 
had performed sacrifices and who had commented upon the Sulba 
Sutras respected Venkatanatha (later on Raghavendra Tirtha) very 
much. Seeing that Raghavendra came out successful in a philoso- 
phical disputation about Kakatallya with some great scholars, the 
scholar Yagnanarayana himself underwent mudrankana (the 
imprinting of the holy insignia of Vishnu) by him. 

Sarga II, 

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♦ This is the author <H the historical poem Sahityaratnakara dealing with the life of 
Raghunatha of Tanjore. He was a son of the famous Govinda Dikshita, Minister of the 
Nayaka rulers of Tanjore, Achyuta and Raghunatha. He has written many works and is 
said to have co-operated with Appayya Dikshita ia writing some of his works. 


Sarga IV. 

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[By Vijayardghava Ndyaka of Tanjore.] 

Viiayaraghava NSyaka of Tanjore wrote this Telugu drama 
celebrating the achievements of his father, the famous Raghunatha 
Nayaka. In the beginning of the drama he says that he dreamt 
one night that his favourite God, Mannar (Gopala) of Mannargudi, 
appeared before him and exhorted him to write the work. He 
thereupon consulted his spiritual preceptor Satakratu Tatacharya 
who told him that the dream showed that great prosperity was in 
store for him and encouraged him in the undertaking. He also 
gives a short account of the several members of Vijayaraghava's 
family and their achievements. 

The several members of the family and their respective relation- 
ships may be represented by the following genealogical table : — 


Timma = Bayyamba. 

I I I I 

Peda Chevva. Chinna Chevva Peda Malla. Chinna Mall*. 

= Mflrtimamba. ( 

I Vemparaja = Lakshmamba. 

Achyuta = MSrtimamba. 

Raghunatha = Kalarati. 

I i 

Vijaya Raghava. Ramabhadra. 

raghunathAbhyudayam 255 

All these chiefs were born in the Sudra caste. China Chevva, 
the second son of Timma, was a great warrior and offered many 
valuable gifts to the temples of SrTsailam and Vrddhachalam. 
He married MurtimSmba, who was the younger sister of the queen 
of Achyuta Raya. Their son Achyuta made extensive additions 
and gifts to the temple of Ranganatha at SrTrangam. His chief 
gifts to the place were a golden throne for the god and a costly 
crown, with walls to the temple compound and pleasure gardens. 
He fought with several chiefs and gained victories. These chiefs 
are not mentioned in the work. 

His son Raghunatha drove from the battlefield the lord of the 
Tundira (the district under the Nayak of Gingi) and killed Jagga 
Raya. He also approached the capital of the Pandya king (the 
Nayak of Madura) and captured his harem. He placed Rama Deva 
Raya firmly on the throne of Ghanagiri (Penukonda). Raghunatha 
made all the sixteen gifts (danas) ordained in the Sastras. He 
married Kalavati, the daughter of Vempa Raja and Lakshmamba, 
and had by her the son Vijayaraghava. 

Vijayaraghava fought with the lord of the west and won a 
victory. On a day in the year of his coronation he made the six- 
teen gifts as laid down in the Sastras. He fought with the chief 
Savaram Venkatapati and drove him from the field. He con- 
structed the new fortress of Pandanalluru in a single day. When 
the Pandya and Tundira chiefs (the Nayaks of Madura and Gingi) 
rebelled against the emperor Sriranga Raya, Vijayaraghava fought 
on the side of the latter and compelled the enemy to sue for terms 
of peace at his door. He also established many choultries where 
a large number of people were daily fed. He presented to Rajago- 
pala (the god worshipped at Mannargudi)* a coat made of jewels 
(Ratnangi), a costly crown, costly jewelled ornaments, and the car 
and elephants and horses. He also constructed the prakaras 
(compound-walls), the towers and palaces of the temple, the 
Vaikuntha Sabha, flower gardens and tanks. Vijayaraghava 
founded an agrahara after his father called Raghunathapura. He 
respected his father Raghunatha as a god and always worshipped 

♦ In the temple of Rajagopala at Mannargudli opposite to the god there is a bronze 
statue of Vijayaraghava in the posture of worshipping the god. 


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[B^r Vijayardghava Ndyaka of Tanjore.] 

The following extract from Vijayaraghava's drama gives details 
of the battle between Raghunatha and the fugitive emperor, and 
Jagga Raya. The account is embodied in a Kammavakkana 
(report of the doings) of a subordinate of Raghunatha, Ayyaparasu 
Narappa of Guntur in the north. It is dated in the cyclic year 
Nala, the month of Ashadha, the fifth day of the bright fortnight 
(a date in A.D. 1617-18). 

Raghunatha was in camp at the village of Palavaneri. After the 
usual morning prayers and worship, he made the usual danas 
(gifts), and, receiving the blessings of SrTvaishnavas, took his break- 
fast at about 5 or 6 ghatikas after sunrise. He then gave his 
enemy notice of his march and entered the howda called Vijaya- 
garudadri, on the state elephant Ramabhadra. He was attended 
by his son Ramabhadra. On one side of him rode upon another 
elephant the town Madala^is, Purushottamaya and Narasappa. 
On the other side rode upon another elephant the two officers 



Asteppa and Alagappa. Immediately after them upon another 
elephant rode the young emperor Rama Deva Raya. Then 
followed a number of subordinate chiefs whose names are enume- 
rated below : — 

(1) Koneti Kondraju. 

(2) Katta Rangapa Raju. 

(3) KastQri Raju. 

(4) Sampeta Naga Raju of 


(5) Rama Raju. 

(6) Raghunatha Raju of Owk. 
(7X Obala Raju who is called 

the Mama, maternal 
uncle, possibly of the 
young emperor. 

(8) Manuboli Raju. 

(9) Srirangapati Raju. 

(10) Srigiri Raju. 

(11) Vira Raghava Raju. 

(12) Vitthala Raju. 

(13) Chitraju of Nandela. 

(14) Narapa Raju. 

(15) Kandanavol Raju. 

(16) Gadi Timma Raju. 

(17) The Chiefs of Kaluva. 

(18) The Chiefs of Cuddapah. 

(19) The Palela Chiefs. 

(20) The Panta Chiefs. 

(21) Srlpati Raju and his mer- 


(22) The Jupalli people. 

(23) Desur Reddi clans. 

(24) Murteppa who is called 

Mama, the maternal 
uncle (of whom nothing 
more known). 

(25) Kumara Rangayya. 

(26) Paminayanivaru. 

(27) The BalumQri Chiefs. 

(28) The Chiefs of Manduva 


(29) The Reddis of Kambam, 

Kondavldu and Konda- 

(30) Mallappa. 

(31) Madana. 

(32) Perumal Mudaliar. 

The battle is then described. GobbOri Jagga Raju, the traitor, 
was killed in the field. His ally Maka Raju fled away with his 
followers. Dalavay Chenchu and Ravilla Madanna, and the Lord 
of Tundlra (the Nayak of Gingi) also fled. Vlrapa Nayudu (the 
Nayak of Madura) fought till the important officers under him, 
Tiruvandina Pillay, Titappa Setti, Puram Timma Nayudu, Bhuja- 
bala Rao and Errama Setti, the junior Captain of horse had fled. 
He then dismounted from his horse and fled from the field leaving 
behind him his harem, camp and treasury. 

After that Raghunatha accepted the hand of a daughter of the 
Pandya (Nayak of Madura) ofi^ered to him, and returned in triumph 
to his capital Tanjore. There he held a grand durbar in the palace 
Rama Saudha containing the portrait of Rama's Coronation in the 
golden pavilion over the broad blackstone. 


On learning of his successes the Padishah (of Bijapur ?) sent 
his ambassador Hanumoji Pantulu to his court with credentials. 

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[B;^ Vijayardghava Nayaka of Tanjore.] 

The following extract from the drama of Vijayaraghava gives a 
description of the palace at Tanjore : — 

The palace contained a big Bavanti (mansion) where the 
elephants belonging to the king were stabled. There was also a 
large building built in the Pathan style in which his horses were 
stabled. There was an extensive hall where the clerks (sampratis) 
and accountants (karanams) of the palace attended to their work. 
Opposite to one of the gates of the palace, called the Kone Vakili, 


lived the cowherds of the town. There were also a palace called 
Achyuta RangakQtam in the shade of a punnaga tree ; gymnasium, 
and a theatre adorned with gems of all sorts. In another palace 
called Madanagopala Vilasam the god Mannar (Gopala) was 

There was also the palace called Sri Rama Saudham, con- 
taining a life-like painting of the Coronation of Rama, and the 
broad single stone platform of black stone, shining and transparent 
with the golden pavilion over it. 

The palace called Vijaya Bhavana Raja was guarded by the 
chamberlains (kanchukis). It was provided with golden doors and 
contained very costly golden and jewelled furniture. It contained 
portraits of Raghunatha's victory over Solaga, of his raising the 
king of Nepala (Jaffna) to the throne, which he had lost, by defeat- 
ing his enemies. There were besides representations of his 
successes over the Pandya and Tundira kings (the Madura and 
GingiNayaks), and of his raising Rama Deva Raya to his empire. 



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[By Govinda Dikshita.] 

The work, written by Govinda Dikshita, the famous minister of 
Raghunatha of Tanjore, begins with a short account of the achieve- 
ments of Raghunatha. The author says that when he and many 
other famous scholars were once sitting in the court of Chevva, 
Raghunatha was brought before them, a small child. Seeing the 
child Chevva in great delight said '* This child will become great 
and rule the whole kingdom, and we shall become famous on his 

Raghunatha was an expert with the sword and shield, as also in 
the training of elephants. He was a great scholar both in Sanglta 
(music) as well as Sahitya (literary art), and a good poet in Sans- 
krit as well as the vernacular (bhasha, Telugu). Raghunatha not 
only maintained all the charities established by his father Achyuta, 
but instituted new ones. At Ramasetu, Kumbhakonam and 
Srirangam he built temples to his favourite deity Ramabhadra 
with towers, mantapas and prakaras (compounds). He also added 
to the temples of Champesa (the God of Mannargudi), Panchanada 
(Tiruvaiyar), Dhenunatha (Pasupatikoil ?) and Srinivasasthala 
(Uppiliyappankoil near Kumbhakonam) and built the big gopuram 
at Kumbhakonam (of the Kumbhesvara temple). 

On several occasions he weighed himself against gold 
(ttilabhara) as laid down by Hemadri. Collecting a large army 
he -marched against his enemies and conquered them. He even 
reduced to subjection the inhabitants of some islands.^ 

He wrote the following works : Parijataharanam, Valmiki- 
charitram, Achyutendrabhyudayam, Gajendramoksham, Nalacha- 
ritram, Rukminl-Krishnavivahayakshaganam, and several other 
works besides. 

* These achievements refer to his conquest of the turbulent chief Solaga who, 
occupying the island Devakotta near the mouth of the Coleroon, was giving great trouble 
to the neighbouring country by his atrocities. He was an ally of the Portuguese and the 
Nayaka of Gingi. Raghunatha defeated the chief, reduced his island to subjection and 
brought him a prisoner. The other achievement of Raghunatha against an island was 
with reference to Jaffna which is called in the Telug.i and Sanskrit works of the time, 
Nepala. The Portuguese (who are in these accounts called Parangis) occupied the 
island and the rightful sovereign fled for protection to Raghunatha. Raghunatha for his 
sake marched to the island with his army crossing the straits by a bridge of boats, 
defeated the Portuguese and drove them from the island and celebrated the coronation of 
the rightful king. Danvers' Poringuese in India II, Ch viii, and Purchas His Pilgrimest 
Vol, X, [esuit Observations of India, page 218. 

^68 SOURCES OF vijaVanagar rilSTORV 

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[By Raghundtha Ndyaka,] 

At the beginning of this excellent treatise on Hindu music by 
Raghunatha Nayaka one of his courtiers is made to narrate the 
achievements and accomplishments of Raghunatha Nayaka and his 
predecessors. After referring to his conquests and his literary 
works both in Sanskrit and Telugu, the account says that Raghu- 
natha was a great authority in music. He had invented new 
Ragas like Jayantasena, and new Talas like Ramananda. He is 
also said to have taught the art of playing on the Vina to many 
musicians. He had invented a new Mela after his own name in 
which any recognized Raga could be played. 

^^]^t rT5r ?TiT^c!TRf5 3T^r^T^>qT'H7^3TI-^ON II 


[By Yagnandrayana Dtkshita,] 

This Sanskrit poem deals with the life and achievements of the 
famous Tanjore Nayaka ruler Raghunatha. It was written by 
Yagnanarayana Dikshita, son of the famous Govinda Dikshita, 
minister of the Tanjore Nayaka rulers Achyuta and Raghunatha. 

Sarga I. — After the usual salutations to the Gods, the author 
salutes his own father Govinda Dikshita who was a great authority 


in the Advaita Vedanta and in the six Dar^anas. The poet then 
praises his patron, RaghunSthai in very high terms. He is said to 
have given back his throne to the king of Nepala and to have 
defeated the Pandya king. He built a bridge across the ocean like 
Rama of old and subdued some islands. He is also said to have 
been a great scholar and poet, and a patron of poets and musi- 

Sarga II is devoted to a description of the Chola country 
(Kaveri Delta) and its capital Tanjapurl (Tanjore). 

Sarga III. — There was a king called Chevva ruling at Tanjore. 
He built the big gopuram and the large tank of the temple of 
Sonagirl^a (the God of Tiruvaiinamalai). He married a wife called 
MQrtimamba and had by her the son Achyuta. Achyuta made 
presents of very valuable ornaments to Ranganatha of Srirangam. 
The canto closes with the praise of Achyuta. 

At the end of this canto in the last verse in which the author 
praises his patron, he says that he was maintaining 1,000 Brahman 
families at Champakatavi (Mannargudi), and was in the habit of 
celebrating the Tulapurusha (weighing against gold) every year at 
Bhavasthala (Sivapuram ?). 

Sarga IV describes the birth of a son to Achyuta and his wife 
Murtimamba. The son is named Raghunatha. 

Sarga V describes the early education of young Raghunatha. 
After his training in Sahitya (Arts) was complete he was directed 
by his father to compose a poem dealing with the life of Krishna, 
since by literary works alone could one become immortal. On 
that Raghunatha wrote his poem Parijataharanam within the period 
of two yUmas (six hours), and the scribes wrote it down with diffi- 
culty as he dictated it so rapidly. Highly pleased with the per- 
formance, the king Achyuta had him bathed in gold and precious 
stones (Kanakaratnabhishekam). He later on wrote many other 
works like Achyutabhyudayam and the total number of his works 
exceeded a hundred.* Achyuta then sent his son on horseback 

• We do not know whether this statement is a mere exaggeration. About a dozen 
of his works in Sanskrit and Telugu have come down to us. The author of the present 
work says that he was hhnself a student of Raghunatha and that Raghunatha presented 
him with costly jewels instead of receiving anything in the shape of Gurudakshina from 
him. Ramabhadramba, one of the many poetesses that adorned his court and the 
authoress of his biography Raghunathabhyudayam, pays a very high tribute to his 
scholarship and acknowledges that she herself learnt many things from Raghunatha. 
His Telugu poem the Ramayanam is highly praised for its merits, and it has been trans- 
lated into Sanskrit V>y Madhurava^ii, another poetess that adorned his court. In his 
treatise oa music Sanglta Sudha, Raghunatha himself says that he was a great master of 
music and had invented some new ragas. 


to get a personal knowledge of his father's territory. Raghunatha 
travelled over many districts and returned to his father's capital. 

Soon after Raghunatha's return to his capital there was heard 
in the palace of Tanjore the voices of many royal ladies crying for 
help from outside. This was caused by the ladies belonging to 
the family of the Nepala* king who had been driven from his 
capital, with his family, by his enemies the Paraslkas. When 
Achyuta heard of this he said that formerly the Paraslkas had 
been defeated by himself and driven away by him from Nega- 
patam. He took pity upon the position of the king of Nepala, and 
promised for his sake to make war on the Paraslkas and drive 
them from his island. He allotted one of his own palaces for the 
Nepala king to live in, and presented him with ornaments suited to 
his position and dignity. Having done this he was waiting for the 
coming of autumn to march with his army against the usurping 

Sargas VI to F7// describe the life of Achyuta and Raghunatha 
at court during the several seasons. 

Sarga IX. — As soon as the autumn set in, the king Achyuta 
remembering the promise he had made to the Nepala king held 
council along with his minister Govinda Dikshita and his own son 
Raghunatha in the palace Lakshmlvilasam. 

Sarga X. — Achyuta, Raghunatha and Govinda Dikshita hold 
council in the palace of Lakshmlvilasam. Govinda Dikshita 
described the aggressions of the Paraslkas (Portuguese) upon the 
Nepala king. Then he proceeded to give an account of Cholaka 
(Solaga) their ally. This Solaga having occupied an island near 
the coast was giving great trouble to the people of the neighbour- 
ing country. He used to inflict inhuman punishments upon the 
innocent people of the land. He would bind them up in empty 
sacks and having well beaten them with pestles would throw the 
sacks containing the men into the water to be devoured by croco- 
diles. He would also subject the kalamal (perhaps means Kalla- 
mars or Kallars) of Achyuta's territory to unheard of atrocities by 

* This Nepala king seems to be the ruler of the island of Jaffna. The name of 
Jaffna (Yalpaua) seems here to have been corrupted out of all recognition into Nepala. 
The Paraslkas who drove the Nepala king from his territory are called in the Raghu- 
nathabhyudayam of Ramabhadramba Parangis which word signifies the Portuguese. 
The Portuguese seem to have interfered with the affairs of the island of Jaffna at this 
time and espousing nominally the cause of a rival to the throne drove the ruler of the 
island jiway and Ihemstlves occupied it. {ranters' Pcrtnguese in Jvdia^ IT, Ch. vii.) 


passing sharp needles into the roots of their hair. These do not 
cover even a small portion of the cruelties practised by ^olaga. If 
Achyuta were to subdue him and put an end to his atrocities, then 
the Portuguese (ParasTkas) could be easily subdued and theNepala 
(Jaffna) king once more raised to his throne. 

Govinda Dikshita then proceeded to say that the king of Pandya 
(the Nayak of Madura) had without any cause been entertaining a 
feeling of hostility towards him. He had also concluded alliances 
with Solaga and the king of Tundira (the Nayaka of Gingi, at 
this time Krishnappa Nayaka).* Considering the strength of the 
coalition formed against Achyuta it would not be advisable on his 
part to fight with them at once. 

* The king ot Tundira or the Nayaka of Gingi, with whom Solaga allied himself, 
was according to the poem Raghunathabhyudayam of Ramabhadramba, Krishnappa 
Nayak. He had been imprisoned at Penukonda by the emperor Venkatapati Raya 
for an act of revolt. After Raghunatha of Tanjore had marched to Penukonda to help 
the emperor and defeated his enemies, the Muhammadans, and driven them from 
Penukonda, he interceded on behalf of the prisoner Krishnappa Nayaka and got him 
released. As a mark of his gratitude for this kind service, Krishnappa Nayaka gave 
one of his daughters in marriage to Raghunatha. In spite of this past service 
Krishnappa Nayaka allied himself later with the enemies of Raghunatha like the 
Nayaka of Madura, Jagga Raya, the Portuguese (Parangis) and the chief Solaga. 

There is an interesting account of Krishnappa Nayaka in Purchas, His Pilgrimes, 
volume X, chapter VII, Jesuit Observat'ons of India. Krishnappa Nayaka was at 
the town of Chidambaram in the year 1599 A.D. superintending the improvements 
made in the temple of Govinda Raja, within the great Siva temple, as the construction 
of the Dhvajasthambha. The magnificence of his court is described in detail. The 
Saiva priests of the temple of Siva at Chidambaram protested against the Nayak's 
improvements in the Vishnu temple and some of them even killed themselves by falling 
from the top of the tower. But Krishnappa Nayaka accomplished his purpose in 
spite of their opposition. 

Krishnappa Nayaka is also said to have constructed a new port named Krishna- 
patam after himself near the mouth of the river Vellar (Velarius), and allowed the 
Portuguese to construct two churches in it. This forms now the Hindu part of Porto 
Novo, Krishnappa Nayaka is also said to have previously been imprisoned by his uncle, 
but escaping from his prison he managed to blind his uncle and imprison him in turn. 
His capital Gingt is described as a great city, the big-gest that Pimenta, the Jesuit, saw 
in India, and bigger than any in Portugal, Lisbon excepted. 

We do not know how Krishnappa Nayaka was related to the chiefs Surapoa Nayaka 
and his father Pota Bhupala who were the Nayaks of Gingi before him if they were 
related at all. The famous poet Ratnakhe^a Srinivasa Dikshita lived in the court of 
Surappa Nayaka and dedicated to him the drama Bhavanapurushottama. According to 
this source Pota Bhijpala had by his wife Vengalamba two sons Divakara Nayaka and 
Bhairava Nayaka in addition Siirappa Nayaka. He founded villages called after 
himself and his parents respectively : Sflrasamudra, Pdtasamudra and Vengalambapura. 
One of his titles in the wjrk is the firm establisher of the throne of Karnata, 
(Karnatasimhasanapratisthapanftchar>a). This seems to refer to the help which the 
chief rendered to the emperor of Vijayanagar (Tirumala Raya or Sriranga Raya) 
during one of the Muhammadan invasions into the Vijayanagar empire soon after the 
battle of Talikota. 


Soon after this, a spy sent to collect information about the 
Pandya returned and gave startling news. When the Pandya and 
his allies had come to an understanding and were about to proceed 
against Achyuta, they were joined by Jagga Raya, who long a 
relative and servant of the Emperor of the Karnafa, had treacher- 
ously assassinated the emperor and his near relations. After the 
emperor of the Karnata (Vijayanagar) had thus been murdered in 
his capital, his only surviving son, a child, had been rescued by 
the nobleman, Yacha, who with other chiefs was proceeding to 
Achyuta for help. Achyuta had to effect a junction with Yacha 
and the young emperor before the Pandya and his allies met the 
troops of Jagga Raya at Srlrangam as arranged between them. 

After enumerating these events Govinda Dlkshita praised 
Achyuta for his long and beneficent rule, for his destruction of his 
enemies and his liberal patronage of learned men. He said that 
Achyuta had become old and requested him to instal his son 
Raghunatha on the throne that he might carry on the impending 
wars with greater vigour and bring them to a successful close. 
Achyuta accepted the advice of the minister and directed him to 
make arrangements for the coronation of Raghunatha. He also 
said that the ensuing Saumyavasara (Wednesday) was an auspi- 
cious day and directed that the coronation take place then. 

Sarga XII gives a description of the coronation of Raghunatha 
as it was performed by Govinda Dlkshita. After the coronation 
was over Achyuta retired to the sacred Srlrangam to spend his 
later days in the worship of the God of the place. 

Sarga XIII, — A spy in the se/vice of Raghunatha returned with 
news of the enemies of Raghunatha, the Pandya and his confeder- 
ates. He gave a description of the fire-arms used by the soldiers of 
the enemy and of the field pieces worked for them by the ParasTkas 
(Portuguese). He also gave a short description of the~^foreign 
(ParasTka or Portuguese) Captains in the enemy's army. They had 
long whiskers, red as copper. They had no mark on their faces, 
and their ears had no holes (to wear the ear-rings). They had long 
faces with crooked eyebrows. They wore red trousers and had red 
feathers on their caps. They chewed no betel and their breath 
smelt of toddy. Their bodies were covered with armour, and they 
were provided with big swords, quivers full of arrows and bows. 

The messenger was then taken to Govinda Dlkshita to whom he 

gave the following account of the enemy. The traitor Jagga Raya 

along with his friends went to the emperor as if for some act of 

service, and when the emperor was asleep one night murdered him 



along with his children and friends. Then having been joined by 
the Dravida, Chera and PSndya kings he is wandering with his 
forces near Srirangam. The noble Yacha, however, managed to 
rescue one of the late emperor's sons from the massacre by a 
stratagem, and is now proceeding to the south for assistance. He 
requests to be assisted by you in the caus« of your common master 
the Karnata emperor. 

Hearing that YScha and his army are proceeding towards you 
with the emperor's son, and that they may not effect a junction with 
your troops, the Pandya king (the Madura Nayak) at the instance 
of Jagga Raya has cut the great anicut across the Kaveri. 

On hearing this news, king Raghunatha decided to proceed to 
Kumbhakonam to effect a junction with the emperor's son Rama 
Raya, and celebrate his coronation at the place. The king then 
vowed that he would proceed against Solaga in his island and 
destroy him along with his relations. He would then proceed 
against the Pandya and his allies and having captured the chiefs in 
the battle-field, would take away all the wealth in the camp and set 
their empty camp on fire. He would also destroy in battle Jagga 
Raya and his other allies, and with their skulls reconstruct the ani- 
cut (Setu across the Kaveri), and put up there an inscription in 
memory of his great triumph there. Speaking thus, Raghunatha 
entrusted the whole management of the kingdom to his minister 
Govinda Dikshita, and in great anger ordered his army to get ready 
for the march. 

Sarga XIV describes Raghunatha's army. Raghunatha vowed 
to his favourite god Raghutilaka (Rama) that he would build for 
him a temple at his enemy's capital if he blessed him with success 
in the war. 

Sarga XF/.— Raghunatha sets out with his army ready equipped 
from the fort of Tanjore. 

N B. — Here the manuscripts break off and the remaining portion is not available. 

Sarga L 


^^ ^^'JTRT^^ T|5TP-T ^^N^ II 
Sarga //. 

* * * * 

Sarga III. 

3T^T#^^^ 'IfnT^TT: ^^TR^M^m^WT: II ^ 11 

H^i^^^^ ^^^ grn fnr: ^^^ihk^ ^^fi^^m i 

fc^Nc5iq't^Tf^TK^T«TmT??^^^ ^T^TIfrfil II \^ II 
^T^lf^nq q^fs^^FqaFU^^r HIH^ cT?q m^lf ^1%: I 



Sarga IV. 

Sarga V. - . . 

^^ T^HT%^%^R^H^^H II ^V3 II 

^TK^naf^Tot ^^qy r^-^h (?) ii 

^\^w^'^ ^^w. WT^rrrf- 

^T^tF^ mq^q-q '^iOTt-?^^^: II ^° II 


SIR R^rt P3^?( cTW^^^^ I 

f^^^T^^ W^ ^^ I 
^'TToS^H^R'fflRm Hm^I^ II ^o II 

S^I ^ 1% 5 P^l W ^R^t^: 

ifT-^^f^^q ^^cfi q^'ft Rr[irTT'][ ii ^ ? ii 

jo^jSt ^ ^fFTT^fer^iiriR II va*^ II 

?T^ ^f% qRq-ST^^Tf^^Tq^^iqgfr^KS' |1 vs^ || 


Sarga IX. 

* # » • 

?flSq ^^155^5: g^KN^TT ^qj^^T^ ^Ct^ 

«T5^T ^^ ^}^ H^4 f^3?TF ^^ ^^^ ^^ IM S II 

H^?[% ^^r ^^ g^^f H^t ^ ^^tM ^RI: n u ii 

»r5^I H R5fPRft^r^# ^^vWoSSfrq^qHM^^ II ^^ 11, 


3TH^> ^ >q^l% ^Km^T: Sf^ ^^o5T%g 3^H%q. II ^.^ II 
^mram ^^:35Fqt W^'^ T^^I^^Tl^^^: I 
«PT3fTKI^ ^rT^rf^ra^-qt 5r?rq^^ f^^lR ^I^^OTT^ II U II 
1%^ qfqf ^"ygSTT sj^t^ r>?m t?^ H^f^ ^^T^T- I 
5T^?n^T^T^q^q ^^ ^qm^1[ ^ T%<TTf^rf^q ^T^: II ^« II 
SPT^^T^ cT^fTlTrf^q MT?T 3R %^To5I%fT: J^f: KTcT^^ I 

^T^Tc^^^ni?^ ^^T^^r T%T^Tq r^N ^TF^^ f^^^ 11 ^^ II 
cRTt m^ f^^f^oi^ «r^'JT>?I g^qx^^T ^ qM[: II ^<^ II 

9r^^^ ^^g[c[5r^: ?T^n^^?5T?^n^^^: ii ^^ ii 

rl^sfM ^ ^f^cTx^rlH^^^mH^ot ^^ m^^ II ^? II 


5?^ ^^ ?^ ^3^m1I: ^f ^^fef^ ^?I^f|TW?^l 
W^ c!?Tr«T5f ^ qm25'^*f HHlfq^mm? II ^t ' 

3^ K^ mf^\ m4 rT^ ^^^^T^iT^^T ?T^qq II <\v3 || 

.sTit^Rff^^ 35^^^i ^ hfI^i^^ WoFj ^q qj ^i II ^<i II 

^J's^ m^^ f^^TfT WrfRig ft^RT^^T^^q II ^o || 
^f^^ ^^^ W^'TT^: Km T%^ ^ofqf^^^ II U II 

m'af^ qq %«rq i^rfi't- ^f ^^feqqi^^ qq^ ii ^ » ii 
ff^rTTT^m qtqqq^'^Tl^qif^^^^^ff q^^q i 

RTmqfm ^q^lt fqqq fqTqT:5q?qRqi5f^qT^ ll ^^ II 

fq^qi^qq qmqq-4 qqq^> ^^qr^qri^q q'^ i 
drqc^fq ^rqpq^iq qT'rfr^fqq^qrfqfq q^qjqqq IK ^ ir 

%m\l^^ fq3f^?TTfqqq^3^'|: 


s{\^m^ m ^m]^m^ (^) 5=r|: qfim f^: ii ?^« ii 


'fif^^Cn^rfj^: f ^^ ^ ^^^ ii 8^ ii 


HTH^e? g^lw Ch^T^^ >q^E: M> ^I^Tl^ II ^9 II 

^3^ ^TRPrm ^TH^i^r: ^a^m^^iq^ ^m^q^N ii \ ii 

^^|qt ^5^cT qRrff%: ^m^\ HHcfr^'^qcTT II ^ II 


* ♦ « « 

;^'^^jq ^F^^FF'^^rpql ^ l%^lm ^?^ ^T: ^I^^F^ I 
3T»T^F%'?m*i«rF^?F^Fr^?q^T ^F%^F^^t^<^ II vd^ || 

^9 ^^%^ JT^^SfF^l^^^^f^' I 

rffTF^ ^'f m ^^: gF'W%^^P^n^ F'^: 

Wqc^amf^q: ^^^^ftS T^lW^c^^ II vs<\ II 

fWSq ^E:^q ^?Tri?t: cTmS ^'^Tg gg^ ^^Fr^^^ I 

^^^^g^TF^K^f^ q^^: ^^F%^^Ff% ^ ^F^^j^F^: II vs^ || 

«TFc5^q qg q^ofp^JF^igHF^^i 

aTF^'^t^^m 5rqc5 q^^ I 

qr^^jm^F^THTF^ qj^F'^ ^t 

^^qf^^ Pi^^^H fqgcqtSH. 11 ^^ 11 

^fiq^qq^ qj^qqi^q^^o^ ft^I?p5F?5l I 

sAhi-tvaratnakara 283 

^^w^^\k h Ti^nf|?: #t m ^^g 11 <^« 11 
^^[c^if^HRT^st r^RTf^ftr ^m ^5r^fTT^^ti% II <r'^ 11 

^, ... ... ^ 

^o^ ^^Tj^^im"^^ ^^^^ ^^qi^f^ 11 <i^ 11 

^RWT^^'t^'Tfl^K'iTfTgJTftj'T II \ II 


Sarga XV L 

g;TTqcq|?TqJTT'-Tm^'?K^^qf%rfT ^^HT 

^mi^THH^I ^^^ HTJTTrT ^IgTmT ^Tf : II V9» H 



[Bjv Rdmabhadrdmhd.] 

This important historical poem dealing with the life and achieve- 
ments of Raghunatha Nayaka of Tanjore was recently found in 
November 1916 by Professor S. Krishnaswami Ayyangar of the 
University in the course of his search, with the assistance of Pandit 
Ramaswami Sastriyar of the library, for historical manuscripts 
bearing-on the history of Vijayanagar. It is not noticed in Burnell's 
catalogue of the Tanjore library. The work was written by the 
talented poetess Ramabhadramba of the Court of Raghunatha. 

Sarga I. — She praises the great qualities of Raghunatha and says 
that he had written many literary pieces (Prabandhas). She in- 
vokes the assistance of her patron in her task of writing his life. 

Sarga III. — Raghunatha is referred to as able to pay attention to 
a hundred subjects at a time(Satavadhanam), and issue his instruc- 
tions with regard to all of them. His magnanimity even excelled 
that of the great ocean itself, and, as if to signify this, the king of 
Nepdla (Jaffna) and the inhabitants of other islands sought refuge 
with him. 

Sarga VL — The king Raghunatha holds his court in the palace 
Lakshmlvilasam, and his bards are made to sing the praises of his 
family. In the SQdra caste, born from the feet of Vishnu, was born 

raghunAthabhyijdayam 285 

a king called Timma who had married Bayyambika. They got a 
son called Chevva (Siva). He constructed the tall gopura (tower) 
of Sonadri (Tiruvannamalai), the gopura and Dhvajastambha (flag- 
column) at Vriddhachalam, and the compound walls and the steps 
leading to the temple of Srisailam. In all these places he made 
arrangements for the permanent worship of God. He made many 
offerings (gifts) and established many agraharas (Brahman villages) 
on the banks of the Kaveri. He married Murtyamba, the sister of 
the Queen of Achyuta Raya. . - 

They had for son Achyuta. He constructed the beautiful golden 
Vimana (tower over the sanctum) at Srirangam, and presented to 
the God of the place a crown (Kirlta) and a throne. He made 
many gifts to the God Siva worshipped at Ramesvaram and 
restored the many tirthas (holy bathing ghats) of the place which 
were in ruins. He constructed many temples, granted agraharas 
and performed gifts like muktatulapurusha (weighing himself 
against pearls and distributing the pearls in charity). Achyuta 
married Murtyamba and to her was born the son Raghunatha. 

When Raghunatha grew up, his great qualities pleased his 
father very much. He had several princesses of the Pandya and 
other kingdoms married to him. Achyuta made Raghunatha 
Yuvaraja (heir-apparent). At that time the Karnata (Vijayanagar) 
emperor Venkatadeva Raya was opposed by the Parasikas (Muham- 
madan rulers of Bijapur and Golkonda). In order to defend the 
empire against them, he requested Achyuta to send the prince 
Raghunatha to his assistance. At the direction of Achyuta 
Raghunatha started on the expedition followed by hundreds of 
tributary chiefs. He went to Chandragiri, and from there reached 
Penukonda the hereditary capital of the Karnata (Vijayanagar) 
kings in a few days. The emperor Venkatadeva Raya on hearing 
of his arrival received him with great honour and made him stay 
in Penukonda. Many of the enemies of the emperor fled from 
Penukonda when they learnt of the arrival of Raghunatha with 
troops, while a few mounting their horses opposed him. But they 
were easily defeated by the valiant Raghunatha and were scattered 
as the Rakshasas were by Rama. On their defeat they submitted 
to Raghunatha and retired. After this victory Raghunatha was 
opposed by the Murasas (the people of the Morasanadu, the district 
embracing the northern portion of North Arcot and the adjacent 
parts of the neighbouring districts) from their forts like Ballalapura. 
Having defeated all these enemies he brought all the territory and 
the fortresses of Karnata once more under the emperor Venkatadeva 


Raya. After this victory the emperor Venkatadeva Raya in the 
public court acknowledged the great assistance rendered by Raghu- 
natha, and said that he was able to destroy his enemies only with 
the assistance of Raghunatha. He also honoured him with presents 
of horses and jewellery. Raghunatha then learnt from some re- 
latives of the chief that the lord of Tundira (the Nayaka of Gingi), 
Krishnappa Nayaka, was wasting away in the emperor's prison. 
Raghunatha took pity upon him and by his influence got Krish- 
nappa Nayaka released by the emperor. The lord of Tundira then 
prostrated himself with his queen before Raghunatha, and showed 
his gratitude by giving Raghunatha his daughter in marriage. 
When Achyuta heard that his son Raghunatha was returning after 
accomplishing his mission with the emperor of Karnata he pro- 
ceeded some distance from his capital to meet him and give him a 
fitting reception. 

Sarga VIII. — Raghunatha was then raised to the throne.^ Soon 
after this, news was brought to Raghunatha of the atrocities of a 
chief called Solaga. This chief was so powerful that he had 
defied even powerful viceroys like Vitthala Raja.t He was a wor- 
shipper of the God Bhairava. He had occupied an island near the 
sea, and was giving great trouble to the surrounding country. He 
used to carry away women from the neighbouring country and was 
giving the people no peace. t 

When Raghunatha heard this he promised to relieve the suffer- 
ing people by the destruction of Solaga. 

• This must have been when his father Achyuta was still living. In the poem 
Sahityaratnakaram of Yagnanarayana Dikshita, dealing with the life of Raghunatha, 
Achyuta is said to have been living after the death of the emperor Venkatapati Raya, and 
the massacre of the royal family by Jagga Raya. When he heard that the only surviving 
son of the murdered emperor and the general Yachama were proceeding to the south for 
assistance to Tanjore, and that Jagga Raya and his^lly, the Nayak of Gingi were march- 
ing south to effect a junction with the Nayak of Madura, Govinda Dikshita persuaded 
Achyuta to resign in favour of his son Raghunatha, who was young and vigorous to carry 
on the war. Achyuta did as he was advised and retired to Srirangam to spend his 
remaining days. 

f We do not know whether the Vitthala here referred to could be Rama Raju 
N'itthala, a cousin of the Emperor Aliya Rama Raya who led an invasion to the extreme 
south of the peninsula. We do not know whether Solaga against whom Raghunatha 
fought about 1615 could have also fought with Rama Raju Vitthala who invaded the 
south m?re than half a century before the event. 

+ The atrocities of Solaga are described in worse colours in the Sahityaratnakaram. 
He used to throw his prisoners to his trained crocodiles. He used to pass sharp needles 
into the roots of the hairs of his prisoners. This chief Solaga was an ally of the Portu- 
guese, and the Jesuit writer Pimenta gives an account of him in l^urchas His Pilgrimes, 
Volume X, Chapter vii. 


Soon after this the servants of Raghunatha's Court announced 
to him that the king of Nepala* had gone to him with his relatives 
and assistants, and was waiting to be admitted to his presence. 
When the king of Nepala (Jaffna) was brought before him he made 
due obeisance to Raghunatha and narrated how Raghunatha's 
grandfather China Chevva and his father Achyuta were great 
supporters of his kingdom. The Parangis (Portuguese) had on 
several occasions been defeated by his ancestors, and they had 
been waiting to wreak their vengeance upon the king of Nepala. t 
Roving the seas in their ships they now attacked his capital while 
he was himself away from it and captured it. He was obliged to 
flee in a ship across the sea and seek refuge at the court of 
Raghunatha. Raghunatha promised to render assistance to the 
king and restore him his lost kingdom. 

After this there arrived at his court some envoys from the court 
of the emperor of the Karnata. When they were introduced into 
his presence they narrated how after the death of the Emperor 
Venkatadeva Raya all the officers raised the son of the crown 
prince,! Sriranga Raya to the throne. After the new emperor had 
ruled for some time the nobleman Jagga Raya, along with his 

• The king of Nepaja was the ruler of the island of Jaffna. He was driven away 
from his kingdom by the Portuguese who are called Parangis in this poem and Parasi* 
kas in the Sahityaratnakara. They nominally espoused the cause of a rival to the throne 
and took the opportunity of getting hold of the island by driving out the ruler in posses- 
sion (vide Danvers : The Portuguese in India II, pp. 206-7). 

t In 1591 under Andreu Fustado the Portuguese undertook an invasion of Jaffna, 
as they heard that both the king of Kandy and himself persecuted those of their subjects 
that professed Christianity. Fustado occupied Jaffna, killed the king and his eldest son. 
The younger son Pararajasekhara Pandara, a boy of seven, was placed on the throne by 
Fustado in anticipation of the Viceroy's sanction, which was ultimately accorded on 
terms later, with an uncle of the prince as regent, until he should come of age. This 
ruler died in 161 7 leaving a young son and an uncle for regent. One Sangili Kumara 
killed the regent and usurped the throne ; but he was driven out by a rebellion of the 
people. He managed, however, to get the help of the Naik of Tanjore and establish 
himself on the throne, the Portuguese recognizing him as king. They dethroned him 
ultimately and occupied Jaffna. A rebellion was soon stirred up in behalf of a prince 
who was then at Remancor by one Arache Dom Luiz. This was put down- The prince 
surrendered himself after the defeat of the allies. Arache Dom Luiz fled to Tanjore and 
persuaded the Naik to take possession of Jaffna. The first Tanjore invasion under Khem 
Naik, who assisted Sangili Kumara not long before, failed. Another and larger expedi- 
tion had no better result. The Jaffua prince who found sanctuar}' with some Franciscan 
friars to escape Sangili Kumara became Christian in 1620, making over his claim to the 
Kingdom to the Portuguese. The text above seems apparently to refer to Sangili 
Kumara's defeat by the Portuguese in 161 7 (vide F. C. Danvers: The Portuguese in 
India, II, Ch. viii). 

X This must refer to Rama Raya, father of Sriranga, and brother of Venkatapatiraya. 
He died as Viceroy at Seringapatam, . 


younger brother, surrounded the palace one night with his troops, 
and massacred the emperor, his wives and children. From among 
the children of the emperor a boy was very skilfully rescued from 
the palace, in the dead of night, by a washerman. Some grateful 
officers of the late emperor had taken up the child's cause, and not 
being able to fight against their enemy were going to Raghunatha 
for help. The envoys then requested Raghunatha to take up the 
cause of the fugitive emperor, and rescue the empire once more 
from destruction as he had done before in his youth, and to destroy 
the party of Jagga Raya. When Raghunatha heard this he told 
his ministers that the three tasks of destroying Solaga in the 
island, driving out the enemies of the Nepala (Jaffna) king, and 
celebrating the coronation of the new Karnata emperor would 
constitute his digvijaya (conquest of the four quarters). 

Having ordered all his generals to get ready, and apppointed 
proper officers for governing the capital during his absence, 
Raghunatha set out with his army along the banks of the Kaveri to 
Kumbhakonam. He worshipped the gods of the place and marched 
towards the island of Solaga on the seashore. Solaga was 
afraid of the great heroism of Raghunatha, although he was 
himself a warrior, and requested the assistance of his ally Krishna 
(Krishnappa Nayaka of Gingi). His own courtiers sought to 
dissuade Krishnappa Nayaka from making war against Raghu- 
natha who had saved him when he was captured by his powerful 
enemy, the emperor. But he did not listen to their counsel and 
marched towards the island of Solaga. Seeing that Solaga did 
not surrender and still stood defiant, Raghunatha ordered his men 
to construct a bridge of boats and himself crossed over to the island 
on an elephant. They then began to lay siege to the enemy's fort, 
but the garrison within it did great injury to his army by raining 
upon it stones and fire. The king then in great anger ordered his 
army to destroy the fortifications or enter the fort with scaling 
ladders. When the fort fell into the besiegers' hands Solaga tried 
to escape, but he was taken prisoner and Raghunatha ordered his 
life to be spared. Seeing that the Solaga had been captured, his 
ally * Krishnappa Nayaka, the Nayaka of Gingi, escaped to his 
own capital. Advised by his ministers not to show any considera- 
tion to Sojaga and to throw him into prison, Raghunatha ordered 

• In 'Purchas, His Pilgrimes,' Vol. X, page 218, there is an interesting account of 
Krishnappa Nayaka. the ruler of Gingi and of the manner of his accession to this posi- 
tion. He escaped from the prison himself and had his uncle blinded and put into it. 


Sarga IX. — After Raghunatha's victory over the Sojaga his 
ministers reminded him of the expedition against the usurping 
Portuguese (Parangis) in the island of Nepala (Jaffna). He pro- 
ceeded on his elephant to the seacoast followed by his army and 
ordered the construction of a bridge of boats for his army to cross 
over to the island. When his army was crossing over to the island 
by the bridge it was opposed by the troops of the Portuguese who 
used fire-arms. The battle between the two forces is then 
described. Seeing that the forces of the king (Raghunatha) were 
irresistible the Parangis fled before them and leaving behind 
them their money and arms and ammunition, escaped into the sea. 
Raghunatha then placed his own garrison in the island and 
celebrated the coronation of his ally, the Nepala (Jaffna) king, as 
Rama performed the coronation of Vibhlshana. 

The envoys sent from Raghunatha's court then brought to him 
an account of the traitors to the empire (Jagga Raya and his 
allies).* They had effected a junction with the rulers of Tundira 
(Gingi) and Pandya, and with their armies were hunting for the 
late emperor's surviving son to put him to death. Raghunatha 
ordered his army to march west to Topur t which was the head- 
quarters of the enemy. He then intimated to every captain in his 
army that they should deliver the attack upon the enemy the next 
day, and stationed sentinels at several places in the field. The 
troops are then described as they appeared in the night with their 
torches and watch fires. Seeing the extraordinary preparations of 
Raghunatha, his enemies, the Pandya and his allies also made 
themselves ready. 

Sarga X. — When the allies were attacked by the troops of the 
king, the scene resembled the meeting of the eastern ocean with the 
western. In the beginning there was an artillery duel between the 
two contending armies. After that the cavalry of Raghunatha 
proceeded in semi-circular formation, and attacked the enemy 

* Vide Sewell's ForgoUen Empire, Chap. XVII. Barradas says that Jagga Raya 
did this in order to bring about the succession of his own nephew. One of the queens 
of Venkatapati Raya, who is called Bayamma was very sorry that she had no issue and 
pretending that she was pregnant introduced into the palace a stranger child and brought 
him up as her own son. lie was brought up in the court itself, but his origin w;is 
known to the emperor who on his death-bed nominated as his successor Sriranga Kaya 
alias Chikka Kaya, son of his brother Rama who was crown-prince. Jagga Raya took 
up the cause of the boy who was brought up by Bayamma as her own son. Ife was 
father or brother of Bayamma. He surrounded the palace one night with his soldiers 
and massacred the whole of the royal family except a single child who was skilfully 
saved by the noleman Vachama Nayaka. 

t Now called Tohur, about two miles from the grand anicut, on the south bank of 
the Kaveri. 



closely followed by his infantry which was irresistable. The 
troops of the Pandya could not stand the attack, broke and fled 
from the field. Jagga Raya then advanced and opposed Raghu- 
natha's troops. The sight of the traitor Jagga Raya made Raghu- 
natha very angry. In the ensuing attack Jagga Raya and his 
relatives were all killed by the spears of Raghunatha's infantry. 
The anicut across the Kaveri which had been breached by Jagga was 
apparently the one he reconstructed ' with the skulls of his troops 
and cemented by their blood '. Seeing that Jagga and his troops 
were completely destroyed in the battle, the Pandya began to feel 
anxious for the safety of his own territory. Leaving his elephants, 
horses, treasury and harem in the camp he fled a krosa (a league). 
The ruler of Tundira (Gingi) also fled from the field making him- 
self ridiculous in the eyes of his own officers. When he saw the 
troops of his allies flying from the field Ravilla Venka lost courage 
and fled along with the others, as also Maka Raja who had 
come to the field in a braggart spirit. Their ally Rayadallapi (?) 
Chencha* who had never seen a battle from his birth became 
afraid when he saw from a distance royal corpses weltering in 
their blood and fled in great hurry. Raghunatha then pardoned 
the Pandya who was captured and brought before him. and spared 
his life gaining great glory by the act. Raghunatha then had a 
pillar of victory erected on the banks of the Kaveri. 

Some envoys of Raghunatha's court who had gone to enquire 
about the proceedings in the territory of the Nayak of Gingi return- 
ed to his court and reported that, after having been defeated by 
his army and driven away from the field, he had joined with 
other chiefs like himself and was projecting measures of hostility 
against Raghunatha. Raghunatha on hearing that, proceeded 
with his army along the bank of the Kaveri to Panchanada (Tiru- 
vaiyar or Tiruvadi) and there waited for news of the success of the 
army he had despatched under his general against Krishnappa of 
Gingi. His victorious generals returned from the campaign and 
gave him an account of it. They first proceeded against Bhuvana- 
giri and other fortresses in the enemy territory, and captured them 
dispersing the garrisons stationed there by the enemy. Then they 
were attacked by Krishnappa Nayaka with his allies like Yatiraja 
who like himself had fled from the field. Raghunatha was greatly 
pleased with the news of the victory and rewarded his generals 

• This Chencha is referred to as Dajavai Chenchu in Vijayaraghava Nayaka's poem, 
Raghunathabhyudayam (Extract No. 86). He seems to be the same Chenchu referred to 
among the allies of Jagga in the Ramarajlyamu (Extract No. 79). Dallapi is possibly an 
error for Dalavai. 


amply. He then returned to his capital Tanjore after a long 
absence, being waited upon on his journey by the princes of ancient 

Sarga XL — After Raghunatha returned to his capital he held 
court to examine the achievements of the accomplished ladies of 
his court. They are said to have been proficient in composing the 
four kinds of poetry (Chitra, Bandha, Garbha and Asu) and in 
explaining the works written in various languages. They were 
skilful in the art of Satalekhini and filling up literary verse 
puzzles (padyapuranam). They were able to compose verses at 
the rate of one hundred in an hour (ghatikasata), and to compose 
poetry in eight bhashas (Sanskrit, Telugu and the six Prakrits). 
They knew how to interpret and explain the poems and dramas 
(kavyas and natakas) composed by the famous poets, and to 
explain the secrets of the music of the two sorts (Karnata and 
Desa). They were able to sing very sweetly and to play on the 
Vina and such other musical instruments as the Ravanahasta. 
Raghunatha examined the proficiency of all of them and presented 
them with Kanakabhisheka (bathing in gold). 

Sarga XII. — Raghunatha heard the songs sung before him and 
witnessed the dances of the accomplished ladies of his court. 
Some of the ragas, etc., that were sung before him were designed 
by Raghunatha himself who was a master of the art. The chief 
ragas that they sung were Jayamangala, SimhalalTla, Jayanissaru(?) 
and Kachachcharitra (.?). Some of the talas to which they were 
played were Ratillla, Turangallla, Rangabharana and Ananga- 
parikramana, Abhinandana, Nandanandana and Abhimala. 
Among the dances that were exhibited before him there was one 
called Raghunathavilasa named after himself. 

In the colophon the talented authoress says that she got her 
learning by the favour of the god Ramabhadra, and that she was 
an expert in the arts of Satalekhini and Samayalekhini, that she 
was able to write the four sorts of poetry in all the eight languages 
(Sanskrit, Telugu and the six Prakrits). She also says that she 
was installed on the throne of Sahitya Samrajya (empress among 

Sarga I. 
T^^r^FI^ ^5^T^^3- H^-^H^F^JT HT^^-c^f : I 

1 9- A 


Sarga III. 

Sarga VI. 

?frr^^*r[ eft JT^r^T ^^^ ^qtm^Tei p?^qr ^wm i 
^^ Hm^^^^R H^H irrR^qrKmo;5^: ^^m: ii ^ ii 

'^[^^I^ H^mi^^^qi ^^qiji^T cf^^ ^^^ ^iqi II H il 
.... f ?1^RW /?|W^f?r: T%f^^I^=^-?: II ^ II 

%^^ ^] ^^^^ ^^-^^l]m^ ^IgiTTrTcTR si vs fi 
mxT^ qt f^j^TJi^lm R^ ^Zr^\ R^^im^^i^ I 
^'4 q?Ti ^^prfi =^^TT ^^^-JlCR'tjTR'lfl^: II <^ 11 


^^Rl%?T^ ^^?5R^RT^ =^^ f^^t qt ^THfIhR^ II ^ II 
*n^H^TT^q ^TT^R; gc^R^^I ^T^qHr^ ^i^: I 

«T^^?^-^Tf%cT^l'q^Tf^TTI^K^^=5qcT5R'?I^: II U II 


^W^RP^ TfT^nfl^T I^IR ^^ ^T^^m II ? ^ II 
#f^l ^ftH^#T^ Hiql[^3f§[5q(TT^^qT II ^o || 

TRI ?T =^ ^3^^q ^TIN>TBJTT'f'^ ^^^^]T: il ^^ || 
Sarga VIL 

STJTT^^rqn^^Ic^^m ^F^f^g^[^^^?q^Fjq [ II ^ » || 

^fs^i^ f^3^g?Tt5^m^ 5^^Rw? II ^^11 

^ Hqr^II%Tg^T[qT: ^t ^^T^ ^t f^^q I 

^S[TT ff^^^^^tf-Tig: aTH-?m^J^Ht ^q =^ |l ^\ || 

3iRrp{Tr^^^q wai%: h^ h^^ ^f^ ^T^^rq I 
^orfe^^T^Toif f^m^ f^=qR^p qfg^qcTq: ii «^ ii 

m ^iq ^pmf ^^T^m^^^^ ^^gq . iiw ii 

^iT^^^^^TrTT5^IcfT ^fq^qionq ^g^ms^ II ^^ II 

^'^2:^5: f^TR^IJft^f^^F^mf^^^rmrl (0 II ^o II 
^^^: ^ ^^R^TqT*T^qT^?T rT^rfT^^fl^T^: II ^^ || 


3T^ifc5c^T?^^Tf^^^^ T]^]m\ TTf^=^q f^m^ii ^^ n 

3p:qTTmt^ rl^I^TI^ R's^'U^^? TT^^ ^^1^ II ^° 11 

g?mf^^ c^cTr^^T^^^^Ift^r^q^R^^^f^^^?: II ^R II 
^RTTIt^ ^^^H^iq^ (t sqiTNqtfS^^TTqirtll ^^11 

gjt ^g3TT^^^ ^^ ^^^T T^]^^^ ^^^^^q II vs« ii 
^onsf^^jf^^^iqqjtRq^ ^q fqfqq^qRq i 
«fqi=^q8=qiqf^nrqH3 Hf^^qR nq^imVi^ II ^^ II 

Sar^a VIIL 

^fqfecfT qmqqqmq sqqjrL^^ mrf^?T?f% q^F^fr qqr in ii 
q4t^t^qf^ fqf^Ti^q^: ^r^q^q^^Tn^'^Tcq^: i 

«rR|t-q q^qqqjtq qt %TV{ ^XTTqfir^Tfq ^qT^qqiq^q: || vs (( 


^^m ^^^FT ^^^ ^^5 ^qjc^ ^ %57r^T^: I 
^R^ 5^^ qi^?^?n: ^T^^ ^^^^^r^q: II ^ |t 

'inr^ ^Rmq?TH^5{?R^ I 

^^ ll:^{I%%qF: II U II 

^I^^nW^^ ^!P^: H^ ^HTrf %^ ^f]^^ II U II 
f rflTq-rt rT^T^S^q ^\sq^ m^]^^]\^^^^"]]^t\^]: \ 

cKH? ^ H^[% st mdf^cTi 5Tq^q^^Hfa:^i^[^^r: ii U ii 

^MI^<c<c«HFq'^c^i: I 

FTWf ^f^c^R^I ^^rT I^9T^ II ?^ II 

^t^m ^TW^qi gfl ^ ^ql^q^^^c^T^f^ II ^o II 

q^q^Rq^uq ^TTfcrFf Wl^fc^^ ^^^^WTllrqw II \\ II 


^T^^R ^qw^^^^"qfir^q II ^t II 

^M'^Cf ^[^f^ ^ ^'T^r: ^iw^\ '^^m ^^^^: i 

^'^m cT?3 3^q^^|: Hfofl RfcT^frrg^ ^H II \< II 
3T?Tq^1T[S:rfR^M^ ^lf=#RIT%'TrrWJTf^^^q9 II R^ H 

^3'^^'?^qT ^^^^^m^ HF^-qRHT 5T^Cr^ft,ll ^° il 
m^^OTNfi^q ^fm ^^^TF^n (^f^) 5^ II H II . 

^ ^^ ^T^^H^c^nqf^Tfi gsfHc^I^ 2^^ ^q^ II ^^ •' 
^5 ^0^ 3FI§W?Mt %"TTf^"T sqif T?HF5f^qK II ^^ •' 


3T[^^5T5fm2:JTm^^^^'tg?f^^^'toi^iT^lJTJTT^q: l| vs^ || 


^qNmHT^ ^^^ ^^^qct H^^ ^^Rf^ii V9<r II 
m^imiWSR^ cr^^ T%TT^m^^m^T t^ ii vs^ ii 

r>f r^ r«\ 

^'1 ^^^ ^^^T smm^TRrg II ^« II 

^fi ^^Kl^^^^R(?) 3^^F 5^7^^ rTi R^^f^^^'T: II <r^ II 
MT^M^W^KcTl?P^^'TT ^^qprTf^H^^^n ^^'TU^c^^ II ^^ II 



^T^oq^IW^^r^N3§^M: 11 ^^ II 

^_ fN 

«TT^^^R«n . - ?^^^ . . . Hm^ ^c^TNcT- II ^^ II 

WFT l^^^rt^fTRr^^cT ^Tqi^l^mq^qi oqcTRf^ II \ ^ <> II 
Sarga IX. 


m\^l ^^I^T^F^I-^WT ^^T^^-^3 3^'^^ II K II 

^vmv\ f^5 i^^nd 5Tii^»T^ ^fi^fgsft '?qR: ii ^e. fi 


^[%fr^^iqf^?f i^frm^i^^ ^ttriW SRsqnjr^ ii x« II 
3^£H^i^[f?Hf^^^- m=^R^=% mi ^^c^iH II \\ \\ 

^^ ^^\'^^\^m^m^\ mJv^ w^]^^^'^^^J\^^ Ii x^ ii 


^^ ^^Trmq^rqi ^VjT^^fkVs-^^fft ^^^^ iK o n 
sT^lfq ^qm^T^^r^: cfm: ^p^^if^^^^f^ ii ^^ ii 

Sarga X 

^i5=q^Hf?iq-^r?ti^: i^^qr ?f^n^T ^'^^qV i 
^?im^'^=^q^^n?5't: ^T^rds^f FfT^ m^- ii U ii 



;3f?|^^?q5TJJTK[5TIKq5 o^J^^^ sqiTHI^: qp^^R: I 
T^p^^c^fr^T Hmni^T ^m^t ^"m-^^I^ iR"T?^CrCr: II \ \ 

^t^^I* ^^^f^mg^^^g: R?f[Sv:TRl^^ ^11%^^ : II ^^ II 

^vm ^m^]^rm^^^]^ ^^m^^ Rm\^h^R ii K ii 

T^rRTTRT'TI^TRr^?^!^ 5R ^|I5f^|5*TR: II ^^ |i 

5T1^F ^m HTH^WT ^^cTRlrl ^JP^^l^JINT^^RT^JT?!^^ 11 ^ U I 

. . . CRmf . . . R^q^cT'H =^ R^RW- II ^ V II 
gu^^^^q't ^W^RTc^q^q: =^Rr iFNrT ^Sf^r^RT: I 

R=^R^-?TmqoiftfTi^m ff ^^orggR^ R^^^IRR II H II 
^T^T^R^^Tq R^q ^^ f^cT^cT R=^F^ ^»q^ I 
^^ q^ ^T^^qmR rT^qRq q^f^RlS-qf: \\ i^ \\ 

^m^v^'^ ^^ Hqp.^> aqq^i^q ^iri^RcTT^m^ i ^ 


rv ^N r»^ 

^^^FFKg^TR Hqjjfpqfc!^ ^^{H^^^^'?!^: II ^^ II 

^^ ^^u\^7^\\^m fT^cTT ^irT^r^^^^^^i^ m\^ I 

^^Tf^5 ^^^v^ 

Canto XL 


aT^^FF'T'jrHqm5{^^K?^4i%^mi3^'T ii ^^ ii 

^njfo>^TTRwi?^^^^^^'T^^5^[^f^^?^I2^^ II ^^ II 
^^I3f^T II ^t II 

q2Tl^^s^M^*T^^^[^^rq^i^q?jii;q?^^^^|i ^vs n 

Sarga XII. 

^^^^K^^w\lT\^^^ ^^oii ^ft^ m^mi- ii ^^ n 
3f^i^f ^mf 5>'^lc^ ^qR^^T^or^T^^fr^prl: (?) I 
^m^i^T^c^^Tm^T'JTmqK^Hnt^i^: ii h« ii 




chikkadevarAya vamsavali. 

[By Tirumaldrya.] 

This history of the Wodeyars of Mysore was written in Kana- 
rese by Tirumalarya, the prime minister of Chikkadevaraja 
Wodeyar. In the beginning of the work some account is given of 
the origin of the Wodeyars and their relation to the empire of 
Vijayanagar. In the empire of Vijayanagar after the reigns of the 
emperors Narasa, Vlranarasimha, Krishnaraya, and Achyuta, 
Sadasivaraya succeeded. During his reign all power was vested 
in his brother-in-law and commander-in-chief Rama Raya, born 
of a Telugu family. In one of his invasions against the Yavana 
(Muhammadan) kingdoms of the north he lost his life. His younger 
brother Yera Timma Raja then made himself the ruler setting aside 
the nominal sovereign Sadasiva. After a short time he changed 
his capital from Vijayanagar to Penukonda (Ghanagiri) on account 
of the constant attacks of the Muhammadans. Of his three sons 
Snranga Raya was the viceroy of the whole Telugu country with 
his capital at Penukonda. His brother Rama Raya ruled the 
whole Kanarese country from his capital Seringapatam. Venkata- 
pati, the third brother, was the viceroy of the Tundlra, Chola and 
Pandya countries with his capital at Chandragiri. Of these three 
SrTranga Raya died without issue and his younger brother Ven- 
katapati succeeded him at Penukonda as emperor. 

Rama Raya, the other brother of Srlrangaraya, died after a 
short time leaving his sons Tirumala Raya and others. These 
brothers left the administration of the viceroyalty in the hands of 
their Dalavai Remati Venkatayya. 

Later on Venkatapati Raya declared war against Vrrappa 
Nayaka of Madura, and laid siege to the Fort of Madura with a 
large army. But Vlrappa Nayaka managed to bribe the several 
generals of the emperor's army. Tirumala Raya, the emperor's 
nephew, was also one of those that accepted the bribe and retired. 


without continuing the siege of Madura, to the capital of his own 
viceroyalty, Seringapatam. Hearing of these events the Mysore 
chief Raja Wodeyar resolved to drive the traitor Tirumala Raya 
from his viceroyalty and sent his spies to test the feeling among 
Tirumala Raya's feudatories. 

^O^=^0e;c3 Oi)S5oOa)2io, ^a;0^3ic7l C3|:SC5^^ ) ^^m'^FkJ ^Iq)^33|&Jo 

^oo T^z^F ;^^^'^j5(pj®^^Q^^^\}£^^^^j a)di^c:xbo^d^.'^^3:jo5odj® 
o^d^s3o^De)3rfo e)oacOS2ca3j®^e5^doe*3^c3d^j®c^?^y®oc;^D ea^T^r ^'cj^o 

fsr^do •3-ee^doo^.^i^^ ^odo^^Qoc3e>3^cx3od;®c^o; ^€^o ^^T^j^od 

T^cdo^odO ajodde^^5^c2)OC3oF^/3)oii ^^33'«)7^#', J^^ 5^0;®;J=5^0F"5Jd 

/^9o5^yii^ , e^;^o7l i^oo^^d8ji^«5^sJ"i>ocSrs5:)oC^d^^d^s;5o.^^o. 

^dD^e;oa)8rfo ^Ji:^ej^:^ w^^ ^os;5d5" S)^do7^;jy .rsd©^ d^s;5c^ 

20e^^^.5o=^^;^§o&o3oo 5^ododcx3ocS^d;;j^cC"§)odo^?3;^Vo^^do, 
dosl<§^ c^sido, 2js)SQ^ oS^s^^e;d s5oqSo03)^idSoo'^oi^oo^^Sjr^o; 
^cSQd;j^c^ci3o=^o ej^d^5:J5)oJos3o^o3e;oi!)^S G9>o3o^ ;=Soc3a)5:s)a3j=3i 
AF:2j^o2pjs^£^or\^o =er«?o;:JdjS)CSo, -^ ^do^oe)ai)o3oc3Se;o23r5^oo 

T^;®oCld=^F c^5^=^dj®Cl^ v^^0^53oo -^^^rOySOiSljo ;1-0=^(^S^D5^0o 



[By Damarla Vengalahhupala.] 

This Telugu poem was written by Damarla Vengalahhupala, a 
member of the Kalahasti family of feudatory chiefs. He lived 
during the reigns of the Vijayanagar emperors Rama Raya I and 
Snranga Raya III. He dedicated the poem to his brother-in-law, 
the famous Velugoti Yacha. 

From the introduction to the book we are able to frame the 
following genealogical table of the Kalahasti princes and their rela- 
tion to the contemporary Velugoti chiefs :— 

Damarla Abba Velugoti Timma 

I I 

Dharma = Vengalamba 

Varada Timma Kona 

Vengala — Lakshmamba 

Dharma Varada Venkata or Tirumala 

Vengala (Timma) 

I \ : ^1 

by Ayyama by Gurvama by Kesama 

L I . I 

I I I I I 

Chenna Ke^va Vengala Varada Krishna 


by Krishnamba, by Timmamba, by Lingamba, by Vengamma, by Akkamma* 

1 I I ! I , 

Venkata Anka Timma Ayya Chinna Venkata 

KastQriranga = Venkatamma. 

(Son of Yacha of the Velugoti family.) 

II' I I 

Ranga Yacha Singa Akkamma* = Chenna 


Of these Tirrjma or Tirumala, the son of Vengala and the 
brother-in-law of Velugoti Kasturiranga, was a great conqueror. 
On merely hearing that he was invading their territories, the 
Muhammadan chiefs of the north fled from their capitals in great 
fear ; the lord of Bijapur to Pannala, the Mulka (Kutb Mulk of Gol- 
konda) to Paigova (?), th^ Nizam of (Ahmadnagar) to Makka (?) and 
the ruler of Agra to Gaya.* 

His younger sister VenkatSmba married Kasturiranga of the 
Yacha family and had by him three sons Ranga, Yacha and Singa, 
and a daughter Akkamamba. Of these Yacha, son of Kasturi- 
ranga and brother-in-law of Chenna, defeated the chief Davalu 
Papat at Uttaramalluru. He marched as far as Tirumala (Tirupati 
in the Chittoor district), defeated the mountain chiefs there, and 
captured Chengalpat (Chengleput). Outside the fort of Palembu- 
kota (Palemkota, South Arcot) he fought with the chief Yatiraju 
and defeated him. He fought with Jagga Raya and the rulers of 
Gingi, Madura and Trichinopoly at Topur.t He there killed Jagga 
Raya, defeated the troops of the Nayaks of Madura and Gingi, and 
drove the Nayak of Trichinopoly from the field. 

His brother-in-law Chenna defeated Linga of VelQr § (Vellore) 
in the plains of Munnali (Minnal ?). He defeated his enemies at a 
place called Kudalattur. He also fought with the Pandya il (the 
Nayak of Madura) and put him to flight. He got the title Gadi- 
kotamalla (the capturer of enemy fortresses). Chenna also 
captured the fortress of Vellore with its high fortifications and 
deep moat. Yachama Nayaka got presents of elephants and 

* This seems to be merely an exaggeration. The chief might have fought with the 
Bahmani rulers of Bijapur, Golkonda and Ahmadnagar in the wars between those 
chiefs and the later Vijayanagar emperors ; but he could never have come in contact 
or even within a reasonable distance of the territory of the Moghul Empire of Delhi, 

t The Jesuit Father Pimenta has something to say of this chief — vide Purchas, His 
Pilgrimes, X, Chap. vii. 

X The present name of this place is Tohur. It is situated near the Grand Anikut 
across the Kaveri. Gagga Raya and his troops effected at this place a junction with the 
troops of the Nayaks of Gingi and Trichinopoly. But they were completely defeated by 
Yachama Nayak and Raghunatha Nayaka of Tanjore who espoused the cause of the 
fugitive emperor Rama Raya. 

§ Linga of Vellore was the son of Chinna Bommu Nayaka of Vellore who was the 
patron of the scholar Appaya Dikshita. He is the donor of the Vilapaka grant of 
Venkata. His defeat and the capture of his capital by Chenna must have occurred after 
the date of the Vilapaka grant (Epigraphia Indica, IV, No. 39). The capture of the 
place was possibly the immediate cause of the change of capita) ftom Chandragiri to 
Vellore by Venkatapati Raya, 

II This possibly means that he took part in the war between the fugitive emperor 
Rama Raya and Jagga Raya. He may have fought on the side of Rama Raya along 
with his brother-in-law Yachama Nayaka. 



horses from the Nizam Shah, Adil Shah and Kutb Shah. He was 
high in the estimation of the people of the cities of Cuttack, Delhi, 
Agra, Ahmadnagar, Mahur, Shiraj, Kalamba, Manduva, Makkha, 
Bedandakota (Bidar), Hukumi (?) and Mahishmati. 

8DO00 K^ s5oa)&^o ©^{3^5500 cSS)o3^^'F^6-^5L?x^p§if- 


A. 'i6«5i^'d^;^T'?5bCc"d •sy«5Sb-cr»^CoT'cR5b 

55b. SS9^^??<|)?55^l6^^e)^ aD^er-oooSo'goacJ^oo 

§'. 2^0"S©cC6D"^CS2;iT^55e3b 

C^«/^ 11. 





This verse has been taken from a collection of Chatu (fugitive) 
verses called Chatupadyaratnakaram. It refers to the war between 
Jagga Raya, Maka Raja and Ravilla Venku on one side and 
Yachama Nayaka on the other. This refers to the war between the 
chiefs to secure the succession of Rama Raya and punish the 
murderer Jagga Raya. The substance of the verse is that a crore 
of Jagga Rayas, seventy crores of Maka Raja's father and one lakh 
and a sixteen Ravilla Venkus put together would not be a match 
for Yacha, who bears the title of Ibbara Ganda, just as any 
number of goats joining together would not be a match for the 


[By Ddmarla Ankabhupdla.] 

In the introduction to this work written by the Kalahasti chief 
AnkabhQpala and dedicated to his father Chenna, he gives a short 
account of his family. His elder brother Venkata marched with 
his army against the ruler of Gingi, Krishnappa Nayaka, and 
after defeating him constructed in his territory a large tank and 
named it Chennasagaram after his father.* 

His younger brother Ayyat saw that the people of Pralayakaveri 
(the Dutch at Pulicat) were incessantly fighting with the people of 
MailapQr (the Portuguese at St. Thome in Mylapore), and to put aji 
end to the fighting, founded the town of Chennapatnam (Madras) 
between them. 

♦ Vide Nos. 61-64 of Epigraphist's collection for the year 1906. 

f This is the Damarla Ayyapendra who fought on the imperial side against Chikka- 
devaraja Wodeyar of Mysore at Erode. He fell in the battle. (Epfgraphia Carnataka, 
Mysore, part 1, Sr : 14). Refer to genealogical table on page 304 above, 


acS5bc^)S)ex)T3^■S) 23KI^?50oooo-£Sd s5b'3crsS'C(Sr^cX5Si6 




[By Tinimalarya : Sriranga Rdya III of Vijayanagar.] 

At the end of this work there is an interesting account of Sri- 
ranga Raya III, the last great ruler of the decaying Vijayanagar 
empire. Sivappa Nayaka, the younger brother of Virabhadra 
Nayaka of Ikkeri, murdered the latter and himself became the ruler 
of Ikkeri. After this he sent some of his officers with presents to 
Chikkadeva Raya of Seringapatam requesting an alliance with 
him. But Chikkadeva Raya rejected the offer seeing the nature 
of Sivappa Nayaka's accession to power. 

Wroth at this Sivappa Nayaka took up the cause of Sriranga 
Raya III, the nominal emperor of Vijayanagar, against Chikkadeva 
Raya. Sriranga Raya had by that time lost all his northern 
possessions like Chandragiri and Vellore on account of the inva- 
sions of the Muhammadans. He then retired to the territories of 
the Nayakas of Gingi, Tanjore and Madura. When these latter 
failed him he was wandering over the country for want of support- 
ers. Sivappa Nayaka now came to his help and ceded to him the 
districts of Hassan and Belur. By the influence of the nominal 
emperor, Sivappa Nayaka got in return the help of the chiefs of 
Aigur, Tariyakere, Harpanahalli, Chintanakal, Middagiri and 


Gadag. With the aid of these chiefs he made war on Chikkadeva 
Raya of Seringapatam.* 

O3oo^y^dj8)^el ^Io3j d;S)d7^v^^^^3doo ^S^'^'^^^^Ts^o ^odj^%j^t>:)^d 

'^JSOC^O, 3s).;J0o d:)a)J^C^5J0O ^3)?ly7^^0 =5^V'0^(^^o^ ^^,^ ^^0^7^ 

djs)d^^;j0c0a)^ c^e)0o7^Oa)03jd eOz^oOiS^^y^sJPo- §j^do7^05»oJD?5.^;?;5o 
s3o i5c^ e5^e)iiS" Zjo:^j?\^ s5ooo®«>^ =^;«^ol3dor?^or\S?'o ^'^Ddo's^/iF 

;3j3^^odo3o 5Sof5r^^jsi^,?eldo e)^e)iio^c5o i^:) |^o3os5do&^ . - 

. 7^£€odel^?^^e)os3o^e;oo o^^e;oo Sdr^s^^doSosJ^ 

r;5e5^ 'j^oc^o ^^^^«^o5/®cl7^/®oc^o 2^odo i^^ s^ooddgQ =^cSo3or?^ 

^&o;3o=??d 5Gd^^c<?. 83oi^^=^ef sSod^hQ ^cior? - - - a^^ 

r»=^ rfd^^cSo - - - II 


[By Venkayya.] 

Peddavenkata, Chinnavenkata and his children. 

Sriranga, the son of the famous Aliya Rama Raya who died in 
the battle of Talikota, had two sons Peddavenkata and Chinna- 
venkata. Of these t Peddavenkata ruled peacefully the whole 
empire extending from the Krishna to the Setu. He married 
Bangaramma, the daughter of GobbQri Oba, who had the title 

• Here the work breaks off and is incomplete. 

t He was the donor of the KuniyBr plate* of Venkata II (it>. Ina., Vol. HI, 
No. 34, of A.D. 1634). 


Mis younger brother Chinnavenkata " while on his return from a 
visit to the temple of Virupaksha in the imperial capital had a 
vision that the God Kodanda Rama appeared before him and told 
him that he would be born as the eldest son of his son Tirumala. 
Chinna Venkata married Tiruvengalamba, the daughter of Jillella 
Narapa, and had by her three sons Tirumala, Venkatapati and 
Sriranga (hitherto called Sriranga VI). 

Of these Sriranga was adopted by Gopala, the grandson of 
Venkatadri, the brother of Aliya Rama Raya, and was nominated 
by him to rule his kingdom after him. He ruled the kingdom in 
peace from his capital Vellore, and made many danas (gifts) and 
maintained dharma. Once Sriranga Raya^ marched from his 
capital against the hill fort of Udayagiri which was occupied by 
the Kutb Shah and utterly defeated him. He married three wives, 
Papamma, the daughter of Gobburi Vengala, Raghavamma, the 
daughter of Pochiraju Venga, and Vengamma, the daughter of 
Pochiraju Venkata. 

Sriranga^s elder brother Venkatapati was a beneficent ruler, 
and he married three wives, Appalamba, daughter of Surapa 
Krishnapa, and the two daughters of Pochiraju Raghunatha, 
namely, Vengamma and Konetamma. Of these three Appalamba 
was his favourite. Venkatapati had by his wife Appalamba, 
three sons Rama, Timma and Venkatadri. 

Of these sons Timma or Tirumala built the tall eastern gopura 
(tower) of the temple of Virupaksha at the capital Vijayanagar 
(then almost ruined). He was a very pious king, did many acts of 
charity and maintained the worship of Virupaksha. He composed 
the story of the Ramayana in dvipada metre and dedicated it to 
Virupaksha of Pampa (Hampe). He made an extensive and cool 
garden by the side of the Tungabhadra in Kishkinda (Vijaya- 
nagar), and there built the temple of Sriranganatha resembling 
SrTrangam on the banks of the Kaveri. 

Tirumala married Konetamma, the daughter of Konda of the 
Jillella family, and Tiruvengalamba, the daughter of Pochiraju 
Rama. Of these Konetamma was a patron of poets and wanted to 
emulate by her action " the famous predecessors of the family, 
Krishna Raya, Rama Raya and Tirumala Raya. Tirumala had 
by his wife Konetamma two sons Sriranga and Chinnaven- 

* It is to this Chinna Venkata that the Krishnarajavijayamu was dedicated. (No. 39). 
Dedicated to his elder brother Pedda Venkata is the Telugu work Venkatapatiraya- 
dandakam . 


The elder, brother of Tirumala, Rama or Kodandarama ruled 
his kingdom with fame assisted by his younger brother. Kodan- 
darama fought a battle with his enemies outside the town of Jutur, 
and utterly defeated them. Again he fought another battle with 
the troops of Mysore near the town of Asana (Hassan) under their 
Dalavai (commander) Kumarayya." Some of the subordinate 
chiefs that fought under him in the battle were KasarakOta Tim- 
mayya, Sabinisu Krishnayya and Matli Venkatapati. Kodanda- 
rama routed his enemies on the field and returned in triumph to 
his capital.! 

^©\ 07V0 ?5^s5b o5ba 

• According to the Mackenzie MSS. quoted by Nelson in his Manual of ihe Madura 
Country, a Dalavai Kumarayya of Mysore figures among thdse that laid siege to 
Trichinopoly along with Sivaji and Venkaji, his brother. He was defeated and 
compelled to retire into Mysore territory by Sivaji. 

t Mr. fayanti Ramayya Pantulu has in his possession a silver plate grant of Sivajij^^ 
the great Mahratta ruler, recording the provision he made for'the widow and the two sons 
of Sriranga III who is said to have died a fugitive ' in the west country.' The position of 
the widow and the sons was brought to the notice of Sivaji by their Vakil Venkata- 


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♦ ♦ * 





This is an account of the Telugu Nayakas of Tanjore who 
were the viceroys under the emperors of Vijayanagar, written 
in colloquial Telugu prose. It seems to have been one of the 
manuscripts of the Mackenzie collection. 

When the great emperor Krishna Deva Raya was ruling in 
peace and prosperity in Vijayanagar after conquering the whole of 
the country extending from Cuttack to Cape Comorin, Chandra- 
sekhara Pandya and Vlrasekhara Chola were governing as his 
subordinates the Pandya and Chola territories. Vrrasekhara Chola 
then made war on Chandrasekhara, and having defeated him ruled 
over both the Chola and the Pandya provinces. Then Chandra- 
sekhara fled to the emperor in Vijayanagar, and lodged a complaint 
against the Chola for making war on him and driving him out of 
his kingdom. Then Krishna Raya in great anger summoned his 
general Nagama Nayaka who is called Tosekhana Adhikari (officer 
of the treasury) and directed him to march against the refractory 
Chola, and, after punishing him for his transgression, to reinstate 
the Pandya on his ancestral throne. 

Nagama Nayaka marched against the ChOla. He defeated 
the Chola and annexed his kingdom after executing him. Later 
he marched to Madura and drove out the garrison left at the 


place by Vlrasekhara Chola. But he did not restore the Pandya 
kingdom to the rightful ruler, but instead began to rule it in his 
own name. He also established order there and brought under 
subjection many refractory places which had not rendered 
submission to any ruler for a considerable time. Once more the 
Pandya went to Vijayanagar and complained about the high- 
handedness of Nagama Nayaka. Krishna Raya sent an order to 
Nagama Nayaka reprimanding him for his conduct, and directing 
him to give his kingdom back to the Pandya and return with his 

But Nagama Nayaka wrote back in reply that the Pandya had 
till then no hope of bringing back all the parts of his kingdom 
under his control after having been reinstated ; that he waited on 
saying he would be content with a maintenance pension till 
Nagama had brought the whole province completely under 
subjection ; and that, seeing the success of Nagama, he had begun 
to covet his old kingdom and complain against Nagama. Nagama 
further wrote that if the kingdom were once more given to the 
Pandya the emperor would not be able to collect even the quit- 
rent from the province. He then proceeded to recount all his 
past services to the emperor, and said that he had spent a large 
sum of money out of his own wealth, in addition to the money 
belonging to the treasury, in conquering the province, and wound 
up by saying that he would not return before recouping all the 
money that he had advanced, from the revenues of the province. 
He also added that Chandra^ekhara was not the rightful heir of 
the Pandyas, but only an illegitimate son and that that was the 
cause of the previous war between him and the Chola. 

The emperor in great anger called out which of his generals 
would immediately march on Nagama Nayaka and bring him the 
rebel's head. Then Vi^vanatha Nayaka, the son of Nagama, rose 
and offered his services. Upon that Krishna Raya said that he 
could hardly believe that the offer was made in good faith 
and suggested that it was only a blind for the son to join the 
father in the revolt. Vi^vanatha Nayaka made protestations of 
good faith and said that he would never be faithless to the ruler 
whose salt he had eaten. He pointed out that the duty he owed 
to his emperor was far superior to the duty he owed to his own 
father. After getting the emperor's consent Vi^vanatha marched 
against his father with his own contingent of 2,000 horse and 6,000 
infantry without any addition from the emperor. 


Having reached the territory of Madura he sent word to his father 
that the emperor had ordered him to behead him. But all the same 
he promised to get him excused if, at least then, he gave back the 
territory of the Pandya and surrendered himself to him. Nagama 
Nayaka sent back in reply that it should make no difference to the 
emperor whether the Pand3^a ruled in the province or himself, and 
that he was wrong in his order. Recounting the several acts of 
heroism of Visvanatha, Nagama Nayaka sought to persuade him to 
join him saying that he had conquered the Pandya country only 
for Visvanatha's sake. Visvanatha then sent back saying that he 
did not v/ant the conquered kingdom and that, if he submitted to 
him quietly, he would beg the emperor to pardon him. If, on the 
other hand, he chose to fight, God would have no mercy on him 
and he could not win. At this Nagama Nayaka was greatly 
distressed and marched with all his army against Visvanatha. 

There was then fought a big battle between the forces of the 
father and the son in which the father was defeated and taken pri- 
soner by the son. Visvanatha was very glad that he had been 
able to capture his father alive, and placing him on an elephant 
safely guarded, proceeded towards the capital. He sent intima-' 
tion to the emperor about his victory and of his father Nagama 
being with him as prisoner. 

The emperor Krishna Deva Raya was much pleased with the 
news and praised the high qualities of Visvanatha Nayaka in 
public court. He also said that Visvanatha had done him very 
great service previously. Once he destroyed a wild bison that was 
advancing upon Krishna Raya with a single stroke of his sword. 
He had also marched against foreign kingdoms and brought them 
under subjection. The emperor expressed his view that it was 
very sinful to keep such an able general in a subordinate position 
and wanted to make him the ruler of a feudatory kingdom. 

Ten days after this Visvanatha Nayaka led his father prisoner 
into the court of Krishna Raya. When the emperor spoke to 
Nagama Nayaka on his treachery he began by recounting how he 
had been appointed viceroy of the Pandya country, and how he 
had spent vast sums of the imperial revenue and his own private 
money in bringing the kingdom to order. 

When he offered the kingdom to the dispossessed Pandya after 
killing the Chola usurper the Pandya said that he could not rule 
over so turbulent a province. Even then there was not perfect 
order throughout the country and several villages were not sending 
their revenues regularly to the treasury. The Pandya then said 



that he had no legitimate sons to succeed him as king, and that 
he would be content if Nagama Nayaka ruled the kingdom 
giving him adequate pension. But after Nagama Nayaka conquered 
the whole kingdom according to the agreement, the Pandya fled 
to the imperial court and made the complaint. When the Pandya 
heard this, he said that it was true that he had come to an 
agreement with Nagama Nayaka, and that he broke it only because 
the condition of his being allowed a decent position after the 
conquest was not properly fulfilled. 

When the emperor expressed his anger at the Pandya for not 
stating the full facts earlier, Visvanatha interceded on his behalf 
and begged the emperor not to be angry with the Pandya. Then 
the Pandya said that even then he had no objection to give over 
his kingdom to Visvanatha Nayaka according to the agreement. 
Then the emperor turned to Visvanatha and expressed his profound 
satisfaction at his sense of duty in proceeding against his own 
father for the sake of the king, and bringing him to the court as a 
prisoner. He excused the faults of the father on the son's account, 
and gave them leave to return home for the day. 

After they went home Visvanatha begg'^d pardon of his father 
for fighting against him for the sake of the king. He had his 
father anointed and made him wear new clothes, and after many 
charitable gifts fed a large number of Brahmans. Nagama Nayaka 
then showed his son the large amount of wealth that he had 
accumulated during his life-time, and asked him to take all. He 
said that the emperor would appoint him as viceroy over the 
Pandya country and directed him to spend the money in improv- 
ing the temple of Minakshi and SundareSvara at the place, and in 
improving the productivity of the country by the construction of 
anicuts and irrigation canals. 

Some days later the emperor summoned both the Pandya and 
Visvanatha Nayaka before him. He addressed the Pandya and 
asked him whether he still stuck to the agreement by which he 
gave the kingdom to ViSvanatha inasmuch as he had no legitimate 
heirs to succeed him. The Pandya replied that he had absolutely 
no objection to the procedure. He also said that even if he 
wanted to rule, he would not have a peaceful time of it in view of 
the hostility of the illegitimate successors of his predecessors who 
were at TenkaSi, ^rlvilliputtOr and Rajapalaiyam. Then the 
emperor turned to ViSvanatha and said that he would appoint him 
as the viceroy of the Pandya country, i.e. (the master of the 
southern throne). 


Visvanatha Nayaka then proceeded with a large army to his 
new viceroyalty. When he reached Madura and saw the fort and 
palaces of the place, he formed a very poor impression of them 
having come from the imperial headquarters. He then summoned 
before him his subordinates Ariyanayakam Mudaliyar and 
Bisapakam Kesavappa Nayudu, the general, and directed them to 
re-build the fort of Madura with eight gates, and with Bhairava's 
bastions all round. He also ordered them to construct afresh the 
temples of Mlnakshi and Sundaresvara. When they said that the 
projects would cost a very large sum which the treasury could not 
afford just then, and counselled him to be content with the old 
and modest building, he said that he would advance the money 
amassed by his father (Nagama Nayaka) and directed them to com- 
plete the works soon. 

Visvanatha Nayaka maintained the status of the old Pandya 
king with very great consideration. As he was very old he lived 
for only a few months and died. Then Visvanatha became the 
sole ruler of the Pandya and Chola kingdoms, and governed 
them as a subordinate of the emperor at Vidyanagar (Vijaya- 

The emperor Krishnadeva Raya died sometime after this and 
was succeeded by his younger brother Achyuta Raya. His queen 
was Tirumalamma. Her younger sister Murtyamma was married to 
Chevvappa Nayaka. Achyuta Raya appointed this Chevva as sole 
viceroy over the Chola country which had till then continued along 
with the Pandya country in the viceroyalty of Madura. Now it 
was detached from Madura and placed under a separate viceroy. 
Chevva after taking charge of his new viceroyalty built many 
towers, mantapas and compounds (prakaras) to the temples of 
Arunachalam (Tiruvannamalai) and Vrddhachalam. At the 
capital, Tanjore, he constructed the new Sivaganga fort and the 
large fresh .vater tank Sivappa Nayani Gunta after his own name. 
He made extensive grants to many temples and ruled peacefully 
for a considerable period. 

He was succeeded by his son Achyutappa Nayaka who had as 
his general and minister the famous Govinda Dikshita. He ruled 
the kingdom in peace and prosperity for a considerable period. 
His son Raghunatha Nayaka succeeded him. He was a scholar in 
all the Sastras and maintained all the dharmas of the kingdom. 
He constructed the Ramaswami temple at KumbhakOnam and 
founded many new Agraharas. He patronised many literary 


works like Vija5'avilasa * and himself wrote works like the Rama- 
yana. Raghunatha ruled the kingdom in great glory. 

His son Vijayaraghava Nayaka succeeded him and made large 
additions to the forts of Tanjore and improved the palace. He 
began the construction of the four forts of Pattukkottai, Atandagy 
(Arantangi ?), Relatalli (?) and Tiruppattur on a single day and 
made them very strong. He built the towers, mantapas and 
prakaras of the large temple of RajagOpala at Mannargudi. At 
Mayura (Mayavaram) and Madhyarjuna (Tiruvidaimarudur) he 
constructed mantapas that could hold ten thousand people at the 
same time near the bathing ghats on the Kaveri. He also made 
many munificent grants to other institutions. Every day before 
I yama {9 o'clock) he used to feed 12,000 Brahmans in his kingdom 
and himself eat after that. 

He used to go from his palace at Tanjore to the temple of 
Srirangam which was 3 amada (30 miles) distant daily. He had 
50 changes of Boyees on the road and used to start early morning 
at sunrise and return after worshipping the God after 16 ghadis 
(12*24 o'clock). 

Once Chokkanatha Nayaka, the ru'er of Madura, sent his 
relatives and agents (Sthanapatis) to his court with presents of 
cloth and jewels to request from Vijayaraghava Nayaka, the hand 
of one of his daughters. They told Vijayaraghava that the rela- 
tionship between the two families was no new one and had 
continued from the time of Raja Pedda Vlrappa Nayaka to that 
of Tirumala Sauri (Tirumala Nayak). Vijayaraghava was very 
angry at the request since the grandfather of Chokkanatha (Tiru- 
mala Sauri) who had married Achyuta Raghunathamma of the 
Tanjore house (probably sister of Raghunatha Nayaka and 
daughter of Achyutappa) stabbed her for simply telling her 
husband that his new-built palace was not to be compared with 
her father's palace. The Tanjore royal family thereupon resolved 
that from that time there should be no more marriage relations 
between the two houses. Vijayaraghava wondered how the 
Madura sovereign could think of a marriage alliance with Tanjore 
in view of this previous action and dismissed the envoys with 
scant courtesy. 

♦ Vijayavillsa is an excellent Teluga poem wr'tten by the poet Ch6makcira 
Venkata Kavi and dedicated to Vaghun'nha who hmself wrote iho Kamlvana in 
Telugu. This was translated into S<inskrt once more by the ladv poet Madhuravaiji 
who lived at his court. There was also a hall called Vijayavilasam in the palace. 


The extract given below carries the story so far. But the 
original continues it. Enraged at the insolent behaviour of 
Vijayaraghava, ChokkanStha Nayi<ka ordered his commander of 
the troops (Dalavai) Venkatakrishnappa Nayudu and the peshkar 
(accountant) Chinnatambi Mudaliyar to proceed against Tanjore 
with an army. They concentrated all their troops at Trichinopoly 
and proceeded against the fort of Vallam which soon after fell into 
their hands. From Vallam they marched upon Tanjore and laid 
siege to the place. After sometime they were able to storm the 
fort and enter Tanjore. Then Vijayaraghava ordered his son 
Mannaru Dasa whom he had for sometime imprisoned in golden 
chains to be released and brought before him. When he came 
before him both the father and son expressed regret for the past, 
and consulted as to what should be done. Mannar Das said 
that in the actual circumstances of their position it was better to 
fight to the last without giving way. They prepared to fight to 
the death, and to prevent the enemy from triumphing and attain- 
ing his object after their deaths, ordered that on news of their 
deaths the harem should be blown up. The ladies of the harem 
approved of the step and awaited the signal. 

Vijayaraghava and Mannar Das with their few followers fought 
till all were killed. Just before the fall of Vijayaraghava one of 
his guards gave the signal and all the members of the harem were 
destroyed in the explosion or by stabbing each other with swords 
and daggers. Just before this tragic event one of the queens of 
Vijayaraghava gave her young son who was four years old, to a 
nurse with all her jewellery which was worth a very large sum, 
and allowing her to escape, commissioned her to bring up the 
child. Chokkanatha Nayaka assumed rule over the whole 
territory of Tanjore and appointed his foster brother Alagiri as 
governor of the country. The nurse who had escaped with the 
prince Chengamala Das went to Negapatam where she and the 
boy were both secretly maintained by a wealthy merchant who 
gave the boy a good education and made him a good gymnast. 
Hearing about this one of the members of Vijayaraghava's court, 
a Niyogi, Rayasam Venkanna by name, went to Negapatam and 
secretly collected some followers who still remained faithful to 
the house of Vijayaraghava. Collecting about 2C0 of these he 
escaped with Chengamala Das and the nurse to Bijapur. There 
they sought the assistance of the Sultan of Bijapur to reinstate 
Chengamala Dis once more as ruler of Tanjore. Just before 
leaving for Negapatam, Rayasam Venkanna had commissioned 


some of the courtiers of Alagiri the ruler of Tanjore, to create 
hostilities between him and his master Chokkanatha of Madura. 

Soon there arose some disputes between Chokkanatha and 
Alagiri and the former was waiting for an opportunity to proceed 
against his subordinate. Rayasam Venkanna and Chengamala 
Dis after escaping to Bijapur concluded an agreement with the 
Sultan to make Chengamala Das the ruler of Tanjore. The Sultan 
appointed Ekojee, the son of his Minister Shahji to lead the 
expedition against Tanjore. He marched with his army against 
the kingdom of Tanjore and first reduced the fort of Ayyampet. 
After its fall there was a severe battle between the forces of 
Alagiri and Ekojee in which Alagiri was completely defeated. 
He fled with the remnants of his troops to Tanjore. From there 
he wrote a supplicating letter to his former master the Nayak of 
Trichinopoly for assistance and begged to be excused for his past 
wrongs. But Chokkanatha did not send any assistance. The 
troops of Ekojee approached the fort of Tanjore and were erect- 
ing batteries for its siege. Alagiri suspecting some treachery 
among his own followers within the fort, left the place with a few 
followers one night and escaped by way of Ariyalur to the 
territory of Mysore. 

On hearing of the flight of Alagiri, Venkanna arranged for the 
triumphal entry of Chengamala Das and Ekojee into Tanjore, and 
made preparations for Chengamala Das' coronation. The forces 
of Ekojee retired to KumbhakOnam after the coronation, on receiv- 
ing very substantial remuneration for their services and getting 
guarantees for the amounts that were due to the Sultan of Bijapur 
to defray the expenses of the expedition. But soon there arose a 
dispute in the court of Chengamala Das on his appointing the rich 
merchant of Negapatam who had protected him in his youth as 
his minister and commander-in-chief, a post to which Rayasam 
Venkanna himself aspired. Being disappointed he escaped to 
KumbhakOnam where Ekojee was with his troops and induced him 
to proceed against Chengamala Das and become the ruler himself. 
Ekojee was unwilling at first. 

But while these negotiations were going on news came that 
that Sultan of Bijapur was killed in battle with Aurangazeb and 
his territories occupied. On hearing the news Ekojee made bold 
to proceed against Tanjore. But Rayasam Venkanna had already 
written to Chengamala Das that in spite of his remonstrances 
Ekojee was marching against Tanjore and advised him to escape 
from the fort, the best course that could be adopted in the 


circumstances. He wrote that they might regain Tanjore on a 
favourable opportunity. The young Raja of Tanjore and his 
minister were in great fear and escaped to Ariyalur by night ; 
and Ekojee was able to capture Tanjore at very little cost. 
Rayasam Venkanna by his ability brought the whole kingdom 
firmly under Ekojee and restored order in the territory. But Ekojee 
and his friends thought that Venkanna was a dangerous servant 
considering how faithlessly he had acted to his former masters 
Alagiri and Chengamala Das. They suspected that he might act 
in the same deceitful manner towards Ekojee and wished to keep 
him under restraint. But Venkanna came to hear of this in time 
and escaped secretly from Tanjore blaming his own genius. Thus 
Tanjore finally came under the Mahratta dynasty. 

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Tib/ ~"* 

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[By Keladi Basava.] 

Kallola V, Taranga VIII. — After recounting the achievements 
of Bhadrabhupala of Keladi this work proceeds to narrate the story 
of his successors. Bhadra taught his nephew (elder brother's son), 
Dodda Sankanna Nayaka, the science of polity (Rajanlti) essential 
for kings, and installing him as his successor, died soon after. 
Dodda Sankanna Nayaka ruled his kingdom to the entire satis- 
faction of his subjects. Then the Governor of the Jamburadesa, 
Virupanna by name, withheld the tribute of his province from the 
Vijayanagar emperor and was evincing signs of hostility. Dodda 
Sankanna Nayaka defeated him and brought him as a prisoner 
before the emperor. Highly pleased with his conduct, the emperor 
invited him* to go to the capital and live at court, leaving the 
kingdom in charge of his younger brother. He obeyed the com- 
mand and was living at the capital. Soon after, he had two sons 
whom he named Rama Raja and Venkatappa Nayaka respective- 
ly. The emperor was pleased when he found that Sankanna 
Nayaka named his son after himself. He added the districts of 
Hole Honnur, Masur and Belmallur to his governorship, and gave 
him permission to return to his province. He returned to his 
brother and lived there for a short period. When the Portuguese 
(Parangis) became hostile, the emperor summoned Sankanna Na- 
yaka once more for service. Placing him and his troops under the 
orders of his relative Vitthalaraja he sent them against the Parangis 
(Portuguese) of Goa.* The two generals completely defeated the 
Portuguese, and, capturing the Governor of Goa, brought him a 
prisoner to the emperor. For this achievement the emperor present- 
ed him with the town of Mahadevapura. He afterwards returned 
to his province and lived there. After a time he resolved on going 

♦ This statement is perhaps in reference to the invasion under Ramaraja-Timmaraja- 
Vittala-devaraja to Travancore and the Pandya country. Having brought the south under 
his control in behalf of Sadasivaraya of Vijayanagar, he marched along as far as Nandyal, 
as it seems, against Bijapiir. All these transactions must have taken place before the 
year A.D. 1544-45, the date of No. 140 of 1895 of the Epigraphist's collection. 
Whether the invasion against Goa also took place in this campaign is not clear although 
it is quite possible. The invasion of Goa in favour of Abdulla Adil as against his 
brother Ibrahim Adil Shah, the Meale Khan of the Portuguese, is about 7 years later. 
The Portuguese Governor who was taken prisoner is not identifiable as neither the 
Portuguese historians nor Ferishta mention any such in the lifetime of Eamaraya 
(Danvers: The Portuguese in India I, Chapters XVII— XX, and Briggs' Ferishta III, 



on a pilgrimage to all the sacred shrines of India. On an aus- 
picious day he went on his great pilgrimage first to the south. 

Taranga IX. — After having visited all the sacred shrines in the 
south like Rame^varam, and bathed in the sacred Tirthas, he 
turned north. Seeing all the famous Siva shrines (Lingas) on his 
way he ultimately reached KSsi (Benares) on the sacred Ganges, 
and worshipped the far-famed Visvesa at the place. He then 
proceeded to Nilakantha Nepala (Nepal), and after worshipping the 
God Kedaresa went to Kasmir. From there he went to Kuruk- 
shetra and thence wanted to go to Delhi which was in ancient 
days called Indraprastha. While entering the city he saw (a 
sword hung) at one of the gates, and enquired what it signified. He 
was told by the gate-keeper that the sword was placed there by the 
chief Ankusa Khan to be taken down by anybody who would dare 
to fight with him. On hearing the story he wanted to imitate the acts 
of the Mahabharata hero Bhima, at the gate of the Matsya king, and 
directed one of his followers to take down the sword. This was 
reported to Ankusa Khan by the gate-keeper who reported the 
matter to the emperor of Delhi. The emperor thereupon summon- 
ed Sankanna Nayaka before him and, offering him a sword him- 
self, directed him to fight a duel with Ankusa Khan. In the duel 
Sankanna Nayaka managed to fell his opponent. Admiring his 
heroism the emperor of Delhi enquired about his history and, being 
pleased, presented him with valuable gifts and titles, as well a 
jaghir in his own territory. The jaghir that was made to him he 
gave to the God of Benares and constructed mutts, temples and 
gardens in the holy place. 

He then returned to his own country and lived at a village 
called Vatavalli in the district of MasQr. There he dreamt that a 
yogi directed him to construct various temples. At Keladi he con- 
structed the temple of Virabhadra near the temple of Ramesvara. 

Taranga X. — Sankanna Nayaka constructed at Keladi and 
Ikkeri the temples of Ramesvara and Aghore^vara respectively. 
He then installed his younger brother on the gadi and taught him 
the science of war. 

Taranga XV. — After nominating Chikka Sankanna Nayaka as 
his successor he retired from the administration and soon after 
died. Then his younger brother Chikka Sankanna Nayaka 
governed the whole province without any opposition. 

Taranga XVI. — After Chikka Sankanna Nayaka ruled for a 
short time in pectce, he h^d a son called Siddhappa Nayaka whoni 


he educated in all the vidyas. Once Sankanna Nayaka's feuda- 
tory tSamanta) on the north-western side went over to the side of the 
Mleccha (Muhammadan) ruler of Vijayapura(Bijapur), and Sankanna 
Nayaka defeated him completely. When, after some more time, a 
Muhammadan (Mleccha) chief Majjhula Khan came with his ele- 
phants and horses against him Sankanna Nayaka defeated him 
and drove him away. He then defeated Bhaira Devi of Gerasappi 
(Gersoppa) and other chiefs, and got from them much wealth. He 
then annointed Venkatappa Nayaka, his elder brother's son as his 
successor and nominated his younger brother Ramaraja Nayaka as 
yuvaraja (heir-apparent). 

Kallola VI, Taranga I. — Sankanna Nayaka constructed a beauti- 
ful new town at Ikkeri and a magnificent palace in it. The new 
palace was provided with a beautiful theatre. He also had several 
literary works composed. At the village Sangala he constructed 
a big tank and had a garden made there containing all kinds of 
trees and creepers. 

Taranga VIIL 

mi %^e^RR R^§ft^ 1^^[ II 

^^T im ^^m^ ^\%m^^^^^\ i 
f^^il ^i^'rg^cqiiriqq ^-^^^\ i 

'V -; 

2 2-A 


?^iqw^H^ ^ Riflun^'^'^at ^\^ ii 

^mi flg^iir^ «rR^mi^ ^(^ht% ii 
qw^Hi^^Visg^iT H5 ^^^: II 

^^-^t ^\^^ im m\ pf^3ff nm i 
^^^\ ^^^ mT^^^ ^3f%i|^T^ ii 

Taranga IX. 

^wi f^^q^li^-5HipfTfcT5t3Jcri^ II 
^%^ ^rf^ R^^ ^^'• STR^i^ig^i: I 


sivatattvaratnAkara 34^ 

^^m ^i\ ?^T HIH: ^I^hI^Ro^^^ II 

rN <v*v rv 

qqy m m^^m ^m^\^ R^l^^: I 
^^\^ ^'^^ m ^g^^r 'j^^^r ^^i^r ii 
^R^"^R^i 'TR^^^'K ^m^^l I 

sps^I i;iK ^?I qjf ^R^H^'li^^rT: II 

fk^m^ m5.^^^^mh^^^]k^\ ii 

^^ W' ^ ^^[^ ^^m ^^m^i^^i^ i 


^^^ ^^ ^ \^ ^m\i\^T^2^ I / ; 
^iq^'^^^rmi^ ^^^#i^ f^g% ii 

« ^ ♦ 

» * * 

Taranga X. 

^RR^^T IH >lt rf^ ^^[RrT^-^fjing; | 
€R*r?-^^ ^g^'^R^^^^ =^ II 

qfim^H'^d^T^rif^^^^iq^: 11 

5fif& =^mf^^Tf^^ ^3R2T?^Tf^q5f II 
Taranga XV, 

^^: qt ^^^ f?^ H^i%^rf|% I 
^Rsn% ^J^iiqq %^i^qi^?^ ii 


Taranga XVL 

'^^Rt^T ^^m ^^^ %m^^\ II 

fq?3IWe ^^\ ^^^^IR^i^Rq^I I 
^^?T ^ =^ ^^^OT^iq^^^gqPTcT: I! 

3^: i%qi^^fi4 ^^^^\ ^^^\ ^^^ \\ 
^\-% ^^^^i^^^ 5=5^ =^ ^^^\m I 

cf^: qt i^^^^TR^ ^^liq^^icTq I 
Kalldla VI, Taranga /, 

^^ =^r^§if5T^ *f^5T f^^TH^gt II 



[By Keladi Basava.] 

Kallola VI, Taranga XIII. — After Venkata" ruled his province 
for some years he had a son called Bhadrappa Nayaka. This 
Bhadrappa had, while he was still young, by the grace of the god 
Virabhadra, a son named Virabhadra. Leaving the boy to be 
brought up by his grandfather, Bhadrappa Nayaka, retired from 
the world having no taste for its vain pleasures, and became a 
recluse. After this Venkatappa Nayaka was governing his 
province along with his grandson. Once while he was staying at 
the fortress of Hole-Honnur, onet Hanuma attacked him with his 
forces greatly reinforced by those of the Mlecchas (Muhammadans). 
Coming out of the place single, Venkatappa Nayaka collected an 
army and defeated the besiegers of the fort completely.! He also 
defeated the troops of Majjula Khan who had come to the 
assistance of Hanuma and drove him back to his own territory. 
In token of this victory he erected a pillar of victory at Hanu- 
gallu (Hangal in Dharwar). 

Then the elder brother of Hanuma wanted to come to terms 
with Venkata and presented him with the places Lakkuhalli, 
Gajanur and Shimoga. Venkata accepted the treaty and send- 
ing back his erstwhile enemy stayed in camp on the Tunga- 
bhadra. Hanuma, on hearing that his brother concluded peace 
with Venkata, opposed him with a big army. But Venkata 
defeated him completely, and compelled him to take refuge in 
the town of Banavara. Venkata then returned to his capital. He 
defeated his enemies in places like Danivasa and Kumbhase 
(Kumsi .?), and, having rooted them out, constructed fortresses like 
Hibbejagara in their territory. After defeating some small chiefs 
and constructing the four kinds of fortresses in their territory, he 
attacked Bhaira Devi,§ the valiant lady who ruled the Tulu country. 
He captured her as a prisoner and annexed her territory to his own. 
After this he attacked Sankaranarayana Bhatta, the Brahman 

• Venkatappa Nayaka's inscriptions range from 1606 to 1629, Ep. Carn., Vol. VIII, 

p. 15. 

f This may refer to one of the Hanumas mentioned in HI. 34, Ep. Cam., Vol. VII. 
They were chiefs of Sante Be^iptlr and belonged to the Puvala family. 

X A detailed account of this war is given in Ancient India, pages 292-94. Majjhula 
Khan seems to have been one of the officers under Ranadulla Khan. 

§ This Bhaira Devi was the ruler of Gerasoppe, She was the sister of King Saluva 
Malla, and, marrying the Pandya king, gave birth to Deva Kaya. An inscription of hers 
is noticed a the Mysore Archaeological Report for 1916, page 69, paragraph 120. 


governor of Venupura (Bidrur ?), and after capturing him in battle 
put him to disgrace, but spared his life since he was a Brahman. 
When the fort called Kauravadurga became the refuge of hostile 
people he defeated them completely and occupied it. He renewed 
and strengthened its fortifications, and renamed it Bhuvanadurga. 

Within the citadel of the new fort he constructed the temples 
of the gods Sikharesvara, Visvesvara, Lakshminarayana and 
Mailara. Outside the citadel he constructed the temples of the gods 
VirUpaksha, Vitthala, Narasimha, Vrshendra (Nandi), Virabhadra, 
Gurunatha and Kalika, and erected dwelling-places throughout the 
place. At * Sringapura (SrTngeri) he constructed a new Matha 
for the Svami, and founded an Agrahara (Brahman settlement) 
there. He also had a big Matha constructed for the use of the 
Bhurudras (the Saiva priests of the Virasaiva or Basava persua- 
sion). Venkatappa Nayaka also constructed afresh the town of 
Anantasivapura with its inward compound wall, and, constructing 
the temples of the gods Tandavesvara and Ranganatha, endowed 
them with large estates for the permanent performance of worship 
therein. He also constructed there a Matha (called Champaka- 
saras t for the use of Bhurudras (Basava's followers). In the 
district of Ikkeri he constructed the new town SadSsivasagara 
provided with a grand palace for residence, and another for 
jalakrida (playing in water). 

Venkatappa Nayaka also founded a new Agrahara called 
Visvanathapura on the banks of the river Varada and presented it 
to scholars. He also had many sacrifices like Vajapeya performed. 
He founded an Agrahara called Virambapura after his mother, 
and another called Abhinavavlrambapura after his wife, and 
presented both of them to scholars. He also increased the worship 
of the deities Adisakti, Mahesa (Siva), Mukamba, Subrahmanya 
and Sankaranarayana by means of large endowments. He also 
had by his patronage literary works written by scholars on Kavya 
(poetry), Nataka (drama), Dharma Sastra (Law) and other subjects.+ 

* The copper. plate recording the grant of this mutt has been noted in paragraph 
III, page 65, of the Mysore Archaeological Feport for 1916. 

t An inscription granting certain transit dues for the mutt of the Champakasadasi- 
Mahattu at Anandapura (now Anantapura) is noted in Ep. Cam., Vol. VIII, page 15 and 
Sa. 123. 

X The Triennial Catalogue of Manuscripts, Government Oriental Manuscripts 
Library, Madras, R. No. 1879, P- 2623, notes a commentary in Sanskrit of the Siva 
Gita portion of the Padmapurana by ttiis Venkatappa Nayaka. The colophon of the 
' work is herewith given. 

S46 SOURCES 6f VijaVanAGar history 

Thus haviiig got the seven sorts of Santana (like the construction 
of a tank, etc.), possessing the eight sorts of weahh (Aisvarya), 
ruling over a kingdom possessed of all the seven constituents 
(Saptanga), he became old not only by age but also by religious 
merit (Dharma), wealth (Artha), fame (Klrti) and prosperity 

He installed his grandson Virabhadra Nayaka as his successor 
and taught him all the subjects that ought to be studied by kings. 
Virabhadra entrusted the whole management of the kingdom to 
Sivappa Nayaka, his grand-uncle and the elder of the two sons, 
Sivappa and Venktappa, of Chikkasankanna Nayaka. 

Taranga XXVIL — After Venkatappa Nayaka left the kingdom 
in the hands of Virabhadra, Virabhadra ruled it with the assistance 
of his able uncles Sivappa and Venkatappa, and was enjoying all 
the pleasures becoming a king. After Virabhadra had ruled the 
kingdom for a long time, he was opposed by his cousins or enemies 
(dayadas) whom he defeated completely. Then the Governor of 
Basavapattana, Hanuma Nayaka of the Puvala family, marched as 
far as Ikkeri with a Muhammadan (yavana) army, and returned 
after fighting with Virabhadra. But Virabhadra collected his own 
army and with it marched against the enemy's capital and 
captured it after defeating Hanuma completely. 

Virabhadra was very sorry for not having a son, and, getting 
disgusted with the pleasures of the kingdom, called his two uncles 
before him, and, asking them to rule the kingdom in his stead, said 
that he would retire from the kingdom. When they remonstrated, 
he expostulated on the vanity of human happiness, and, giving 
the kingdom over to Sivappa,* had his coronation performed 
with due ceremony. 

Kallola VII, Taranga VI. — After Sivappa Nayaka ruled the 
kingdom for some years delighted with the society of poets and 
scholars, he had a son whom he named Bhadra. He celebrated 
all the festivities associated with the birth of the son with due 

Kallola VI ly Taranga XIV. — Sivappa Nayaka ruled the whole 
kingdom assisted by his younger brother Venkatappa with great 
valour and liberality. Once Sivappa consulted with his younger 
brother about their duty to destroy the evil doers in the world. He 

• The Chikkadevarayavamsavali says that Basava murdered the previous incum- 
bent and usurped the gadi. If the statement of the Chikkadevarajavijayam is correct, 
it should have been this Virabhadra Xayaka that was murdered. 


narrated how the capital of their emperor Velapura (Vellore) had 
been occupied by his enemies, and how the emperor was wandering 
without a home. He proposed, therefore, that they should help the 
emperor get back his capital. When Venkatappa heard the pro- 
posal he entirely fell in with it and said that it was their 
imperative duty to help the emperor. Leaving his younger brother 
at the capital Sivappa marched with an army against Vellore. 
There he laid his camp outside the fort, and, constructing his own 
defences all round it as laid down in the Sastras, began to blockade 
it. By this means he was able to take the fort of Velapura 
(Vellore) and capture his enemy within it. 

When the emperor Sriranga Raya heard of the news he came 
to Vellore to see Sivappa Nayaka and felt very pleased when he 
met him. The emperor presented him with many titles like Rama- 
bana, Paravaranavarana. He also gave him a very costly ear orna- 
ment made of saphire, a very costly pearl, the emblems of the conch 
(^ankha) and the discus (Chakra), the umbrella called Jagajhampha, 
and also presented him with the head of his enemy. The emperor 
as well as Sivappa Nayaka became very famous after this, the one 
for having got back his lost fortress and the other for having 
conquered it for the emperor. After this Sivappa defeated some 
feudatories of the emperor who were still recalcitrant and after 
handing over their territory to the emperor returned to his capital. 

When he returned to his capital he founded an agrahara called 
Sivarajapura and presented it to scholarly Brahmans. He also 
had several sacrifices like the Vajapeya performed in his name. 
He constructed many new forts in the province of Kerala (Malabar), 
and there had many temples, wells and tanks restored. He 
made large endowments to many Siva temples like those at 
Kedara, Benares (Kasi), Sivaganga, Srisailam, Gokarnam and 
Ramesvaram. Sivappa presented a golden crown to the God 
Visvesa of Benares. He also made the various kinds of gifts 
(danas) as laid down in the Sastras. He then entrusted his two 
sons Bhadrappa Nayaka and Somasekhara Nayaka to be educated 
by his brother Venkatappa Nayaka, to whom he taught the science 
of yoga. 

Taranga XV. — After Sivappa Nayaka died (became absorbed in 
SivayOga), Venkatappa ruled the whole kingdom along with his 
two nephews. 

Kallola VIII, Taranga /.—Venkatappa ruled the kingdom for a 
long period ably and justly, and anointed his nephew Bhadrappa 
Nayaka as his successor and taught him all that was essential to 


royalty. Bhadrappa Nayaka ruled the kingdom with ability after 

Taranga II. — When Bhadrappa Nayaka had ruled for a 
considerable period, one of the subordinate chiefs (Samantas) on 
the east wanted to encroach upon his kingdom and attacked some 
fortresses on the frontier. He sent his army against them and 
defeating them in battle drove them away. Thinking that a king 
ought not to be contented like a Brahman, Bhadrappa wanted to 
capture the territories of his enemies. He marched against the 
ruler of Slrya (Sira) and after driving him from his place, captured 
his fortress. When another chief to the north of his territory 
evinced a hostile attitude towards him he annexed his territory 
and restored it once more to him, when he sought refuge with the 

* One of Bhadra's enemies whose territory he annexed sought 
the assistance of the Muhammadan (Mleccha) ruler of Vijayapura 
(Bijapur). When the Sultan of Bijapur invaded his territory, 
Bhadra thought that he could not conquer him and so wisely 
concluded peace with him and returned to his capital. 

Bhadra performed the gift called Hiranyagarbha at Tlrtharaja- 
pura (Tirthahalli). At the town of Ramachandrapura on the banks 
of the river SaravatT he had himself weighed against gold 
(tulapurusha) and distributed the gold. He founded the three 
agraharas Sivarajapura, Venkatapura and Bhadrarajapura, so 
called after his uncle, his father and himself respectively. He also 
made extensive endowments to, and increased the worship of, 
Krishna worshipped at Udupa (Udipi), Guha or Subrahmanya at 
Subrahmanya, Sankaranarayana at Kotlivara and his own favourite 
goddess Mukamba. Bhadrappa Nayaka also constructed many 
monasteries for the use of the Bhurudras (the followers of the 
Basava sect) and endowed them with lands. After ruling the 
kingdom thus meritoriously for a long time he nominated his 
younger brother Somasekhara Nayaka to succeed him and taught 
him the science of archery. 

Taranga V. — Soma^ekhara Nayaka ruled the kingdom according 
to the Nlti^astra and the people were very happy under him. When 
he was opposed by a number of enemies he killed some of them, 
destroyed the power of some and concluded peace with the others 
when they sought his refuge. At his capital he constructed a 

* This may refer to one of the Ilanutnas of Same Bennur or Channaya of Naga* 
mangala who, according to the Chikkadevarayavamsavali, brought on the Bijapur invasion 
against Bhadra. 


spacious monastery for the use of the Bhurudras, and another for 
the viraktas (anchorites) among the Lingayats. Before the latter he 
constructed a big tank filled with sweet water throughout the year. 
Around the tank he made a beautiful garden. 

Somasekhara Nayaka did not marry for a considerable period 
because he could not get a bride of high pedigree with the required 
accomplishments. Later he found that a lady Chennamba by name 
had all the necessary qualifications and married her. Chennamba 
is said to have been an incarnation of the goddess Mukamba. 
Somasekhara told Chennamamba how in former times Mukamba 
had taken several shapes and destroyed the demons (Rakshasas). 
He said that in the Kali age the Rakshasas had taken the shape of 
the Muhammadans and that they would be able to destroy them 
by worshipping the goddess. He told her how the people of all 
countries had flocked to their territory for safety and asked her to 
destroy the Muhammadans and protect all the refugees. 

Taranga VIl. — SOmasekhara Nayaka and Chennamba had 
a son who was named Basava. Directing his wife to rule the king- 
dom properly till Basava should come of age, Somasekhara died. 
Chennamba continued to rule the kingdom according to the advice 
of her husband. 

Taranga VIII. — Chennamba ruled the kingdom possessed of the 
seven constituents (Angas) according to the Nltisastra. She 
educated her son Basava, making him proficient in all the sciences 
(vidyas), and got his marriage performed with due ceremony. 
When some of her subordinate governors showed hostility she sent 
her generals against them and forced them to run away. After this 
she captured many elephants and horses belonging to their army, 
and resumed some of their important titles. When the Mleccha 
(Muhammadan) ruler Avarangasaba (Aurangzeb) made war on 
Rama Raja who had the title Chatradhipati, after conquering all 
the fifty-two countries, and wanted to capture his kingdom after 
defeating him, Rama Raja fled from his kingdom. Wandering 
hither and thither, he ultimately took refuge in the kingdom of 

On learning this Chennamba, reflecting that even great people 
are subject to adversity at times, received Rama Raja with 
kindness, and made him presents of valuable clothes and jewels. 
The Muhammadan general who was coming in pursuit of the fugi- 
tive prince was defeated by her army and driven back. The whole 
country from the Himalayas to the Setu praised the heroism of 


Chennamba on hearing of the defeat of Aurangazeb's army by her 
troops. She captured many elephants, horses and jewels from the 
enemies, and ruled the country without a rival. When after this 
some of her own feudatory chiefs (Samantas) evinced hostility she 
reduced them to subjection. She gave extensive lands to the 
goddess MQkamba and founded an Agrahara called Chennamba- 
pura after herself. 

The work ends with a long colophon detailing the achieve- 
ments of the author Basava. He says he was proficient in the 
science of Sivadvaita, and that he got his scholarship by the 
worship of the God ParameAvara who is accompanied by Chidam- 
bara Sakti. The work itself is said to incorporate the essence of the 
various sciences and arts (vidyas) that are comprised in the 
Vedas and the Agamas (tantras). 

After the colophon the author says that the prosperity of his 
kingdom was increased by the kindness of the god Virabhadra. He 
says that he ruled over the provinces of Gorashtra (Goa), Tulu 
(Taulava), Malayala (Kerala), Mallarashtra and Traigarta. He 
had the titles of Parayadavamurari and Kotikolahala, had the 
distinction of the double sword (Asiyugala), the title of the destroyer 
of the enemies' Saptanga and the banner of the yellow cloth. He 
was born in the family of Chaudappa Nayaka. He also uses the 
title of Rajadhiraja. 

In the last verse of the work he says that the work was 
completed on Friday, the full moon day of the month Nabhasya 
(Asvayuja) in the cyclic year Sarvadharin, corresponding to the 
^alivahana Saka year counted by the moon (I), fire (3), the seasons 
(6) and the earth (l) or S. 1631 or A.D. 1709-IO. 

Kallola VI Taranga XIIL 

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Abba, Damarla, Grandfather of 
Damarla Vengala, 304. 

Abbala Devi, 102. 

Abdulla Adil Shah, invasion of 
Goa in favour of — , 337. 

Abhimala, 291. 

Abhinandana, 291. 

AbhinavavTrambapura, village 
founded by Venkatappa 
Nayaka of Ikkeri, 345. 

Abhirama, 85. 

AbhTshtarthadayinT, 212. 

Acharyasuktimuktavali, 2, 40. 

Achyuta Nayaka, of Tanjore, his 
benefactions, 255, 267, 270, 
abdicates in favour of his son 
Raghunatha 20, 273 ; sends 
Raghunatha to help the Em- 
peror Venkatadeva Raya, 285 ; 
had for Minister Govinda Dlk- : 
shita, 273, 253, 323. ': 

Achyuta Raya, His succession, | 
II, 158. , His expedition 
against Sellappa, 12, 159 ; 
appoints Visvanatha as Vice- 
roy of Madura, 13 ; marries 
Varadamba, 170; marches to 
Srirangam and reduces Rai- , 
chur, 149, 159; patronises i 
Bhagavatachampu of Raja- 
natha, 176; the position of , 
Salakam Timma under — , 15, 
178 ; his marriage with Tiru- 
malamma, 254, 285, 302 ; 
appoints Chevva as Governor 
of Tanjore, 323. 

Achyutarayabhyudayam dedi- 
cated to Achyuta, II ; gives an 
account of Achyuta's family 
and the expedition of Narasa, 
108 ; gives an account of Ach- 
yuta's expeditions, 159, 170, 

Achyuta Raghunathamma, wife 
of Tirumala Nayaka of 
Madura, 324. 


Achyuta Rangakutam, palace at 
Tanjore, 265. 

Achyutendrabhyudayam of 

_ Raghunatha, 267, 270. 

Adavani, supports Aliya Rama 
Raya, 15 ; Kasappudaiya 
defeated at, 103 ; reduced by 
Krishna Raya, 112, 131 ; cap- 
tured by Aliya Rama Raya, 
178, 181, 182^ 204, 216. 

Addanki, 112. 

Addanki Gangadhara, author of 
Tapatlsamvaranam, 238. 

Adil Khan, 133. 

Adil Shah, Raichur passes into 
the hands of — , 10 ; Narasa's 
campaign against— ,10 ; Krish- 
na Raya defeats — , 1 12; sub- 
mits to Achyuta, 14 ; defeated 
at Manvi II by Araviti Timma, 
205 ; defeated by Tirumala 
Raya, 213, defeated by Aliya 
Ramaraya,2l6; by Venkatadri, 
222 ; rescued by Aliya Rama 
Raya, 224 ; pays tribute to 
Ibrahim Kutb Shah, 236 : Ib- 
rahim Kutb Mulk captures 
Koilkonda from the — , 238, 306. 

Adityadeva, brother of Chaun- 
dapacharya, 54. 

Adoni, same as Adavani. 

Advaita Dlpika, 202. 

Agastya, author of Champu 
Bharata, 143. 

Agastya Parvatam, 117. 

Aghorasivacharya, 138. 

Agoresvara, Sankanna Nayaka 
constructs at Ikkeri the temple 

of- 338. 

Agra, 305, 306. 

Ahmad, Sultan, continues the 
vigorous policy, 5. 

Ahmadabad-Bidar, 114, 130, 131. 

Ahmadnagar, Sultan of— invades 
Vijayanagar, 15; Krishna 
Raya marches against — , 114 ; 
defeated by Krishna Raya, 
131 ; defeated by Aliya Rama 



Raya, 182 ; pays tribute to 
Ibrahim Kutb Mulk, 236, 305, 

Ahobala, Rayasa, author of 
Kuvalayavilasa, 230. 

Ahobilam. Saluva Gunda wor- 
ships the God of — , 83, 90 ; 
Araviti Tirumala's benefac- 
tions at—, 205 ; captured by 
Hande Malakappa Nayudu 
and Ibrahim Kutb Mulk, 233 ; 
recaptured by Kondraju 
Venkataraju and Kondraju 
Tirumalaraju, 234. 

AigOr, the chief of — helps 
Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 


Airavata, hill, 92. 

Aivaraganda, title of Matla 
Ananta, 248. 

Akbar, 103 ; Gatata Khan leads 
an embassy to the Court of — , 

Akkamma, wife of Damarla 

_ Chenna, 304. 

Akulapadu, 80. 

Alagappa, officer of Raghunatha 
of Tanjore, 260. 

Alagar Gudi, I17. 

AiagarKoil, 117. 

Ajagar Tirumalai, 35. 

Alagiri, Muddu, appointed to 
govern Tanjore by Chokka- 
natha Nayaka of Madura, 

■ 326. 

Aiam Khan, defeated by Amin 
Khan, 240. 

Alankara Sudhanidhi, 48. 

Ali Adil Shah, 178. 

Ali Hussain, 103. 

Aliya Ramaraya, nominated to 
succeed by the queens of 
Krishna Raya, 178; defeats 
and kills Salakam Timmaraju, 
181, 190; is assisted by Sada- 
4iva Nayaka of Ikkeri, 195; 
establishes the temple of 
Govindaraja at Chidam- 
baram, 202, 211, 233, 241; 
honours Vijayindra Tlrtha, 

112, 254. 
Allasani Peddana, I13. 
Allau-d-din, Sultan continues 

the vigorous policy, 5; his 

wars against Khandesh, Mal- 

wa and Guzerat, 5 ; calls in 

the assistance of Orissa, 5. 
Alvars, 2II. 
Amalamba, wife of Nadindla 

Madamantri, 146. 
Ambamantri, 65. 
Amlnabad Inscription, 239. 
Amin Khan, general of Ibrahim 

Kutb Shah, Yayaticharitram 

dedicated to — , 236. 
Amin Mulk, General of Ibrahim 

Kutb Shah, 239. 
Amuktamalyada, li, 109, 132, 

Amur, 88. 
Anandapura (now Anantapura), 

Anangaparikramana, 291. 
Ananta, Matli, 248. 
Ananta, grandfather of Siddhi- 

raju Timmaraju, 210. 
Anantacharya, 71, 202, 251. 
Anantagiri, 138. 
Anantapuram, Hande, Annals of 

— , 15, 45, 178. 
Anantapura (in Mysore), 345. 
Anantasagaram, 45. 
Anantasayanam, 159. 
Ananta^ivapura, Venkatappa 

Nayaka of Ikkeri founds the 

town of — , 345. 

Andal, 133. 

Andhrakavitapitamaha, 153. 

Andhramadhusudana, 133. 

Andhra Vishnu, 133. 

Andreu Fustado, his invasion 
of Jaffna, 287. 

Anegondi, 80, 184. 

Anka, Damarla, son of Damarla 
Chenna, 304. 

Anka, author of Ushapari- 
nayam, 21, 308. 

Anku^a (Rana), 228. 

y\nku4a Khan, Sankanna Naya- 
ka defeats in sword play, 

Annambhatta, II2, 241. 

Annayamatya father of De^aya- 
mantrin, 151. 

Anniyur, 18. 

Apaga, 57. ^ „ 

Appa, Nadindla, 144, 146, 148. 



Appaji (Saluva Timma), III. 
Appalamba, wife of Aliya Rama 

Raya, 184. 
Appalamba, wife of Venkata- 

pati, brother of SrTranga III, 

Appaya Dikshita, 202, 209, 250, 

253, 395. 
Arantangi, fort constructed by 

Vijayaraghava Nayaka of 

Tanjore, 324, 
Arache Dom Luiz, his rebellion 
_ at Jaffna, 287 
Aratlakona, 153. 
Aravldu, 80. 
Araviti Bukka, same as Bukka 


Aravltivaru, 131. 

Arikesari Parakrama Pandya, 

Ariyalur, Alagiri escapes from 

Tanjore to — , 326. 

Ariyanayakam Mudaliyar, Mi- 
nister of Visvanatha Nayaka, 

Arunachalam, 323. 
Arunagirinatha Dindima, same 

as Sonadrinatha, 176. 
Arunasaila, 159. 
Asana (Hassan), Victory of Ko- 

danda Rama over the Mysore 

troops at — , 312. 
Asteppa, officer of Raghunatha 

of Tanjore, 260. 
Atandagi? (Arantangi), 324. 
Aurangazeb captures Bijapur, 

Avachi Tippaya Setti, same as 

Tippaya Setti, Avachi. 
Avanti, 184. 
Avarangasaba (Aurangazeb), 

defeated by Chennamba of 

Ikkeri, 349. 
Avuku (Owk), 103, 129. 
Ayilakonda, 183. 

Ayya, Damarla, son of Damarla 
Chenna, 304, 308 ; fell in the 
battle of Erode against Chik- 
kadeva Raya of Mysore, 308. 

Ayyalayya, 114. 

Ayyama, wife of Damarla Ven- 
kata, 304. 


Ayyamarasu, Krishna Raya's 

general, 113. 
Ayyampet, fort reduced by 

Ekoji, 326. 
Ayyana, helps against Jagga 

Raya, 244. 
Ayyapa founded Madras, 21. 
Ayyaparusu Narappa, agent of 

Raghunatha of Tanjore, 259. 


Bacharusu, Krishna Raya's 
general, I [3. 

Bagur, 88. 

Bahmani Sultan conquers 
Warrangal, 4 ; invades Vija- 
yanagar, 7, Saluva Narasim- 
ha's campaign against the — , 

Bahulasvacharitram by Damar- 
la Vengalabhupala, 304. 

Balabhagavatam, 103, 204, 225. 

Balachandra Mahapatra, 137. 

Baladurgam, 86. 

Balichapali (Balijepalli), 183. 

Balla Devi, 102, 204. 

Ballalapura, Raghunatha redu- 
ces, 285. 

Ballari (Bellari), 179. 

Baiie Raya, defeated by Amin 
Khan, 240. 

Bana, chief of Madura, 9. 

Banavara, Hanuma of Sante 
Bennur takes refuge at — , 344. 

Bangalore purchased by Chikka- 
deva Raya, 22, 88. 

Bangaramma, wife of the Em- 
peror Peddavenkata, 311. 

Bankapur, 182, 196. 

Barid Shah defeated by Krish- 
na Raya, II2 ; defeated by Ti- 
rumala Raya, 178; the forces 
of — captured by Ramaraya, 
l84;Sadasiva Nayaka cap- 
tures — , 195; driven away from 
the field by Venkatadri, 222 ; 
his camp equipage captured 
by Narasa, 225 ; the fort of 
Metuku (Metk) captured from 
the — , 238. 

Barkur, 195. 

Barrados, 20, 244. 



Basava of Keladi, 194. 

Basava, Ikkeri, son of Soma^e- 
khara Na\ aka, 349. 

Basavabhupala, Keladi, 194. 

Basavapattana, Hanuma of — 
marches against Virabhadra 
Nayaka of Ikkeri, 346. 

Bayamma, same as Venkatam- 
ma, 19, 289-f.n. 

Bayyamba, mother of Chevva of 
Tanjore, 254. 

Bedandakota, other name of 
Bidar, 8, 88, 106, 183, 306. 

Bellamkonda, II4, 138, 183, 240. 

Belmallur, added to Keladi, 337. 

Belur, Sivappa Nayaka of Ik- 
keri cedes — to Srlranga III, 


Benares, 91, 196, 338; Sivappa 
Nayaka of Ikkeri's benefac- 
tions at — , 347. 

Bezwada, 132. 

Bhadra of Keladi, 194, 337. 

Bhadra, brother of Keladi Sada- 
siva Nayaka, 194. 

Bhadrarajapura, village founded 
by Bhadrappa Nayaka of Ik- 
keri, 348. 

Bhagavata Champu, 176. 

Bhaira Devi of Gerasappi de- 
feated by Sankanna Nayaka 
of Ikkeri, 339. 

Bhandarkar Commemoration, 
Volume 6. 

Bhaskaracharya, 156. 

Bhaskarayya (Ramaya Mantri 
Bhaskara), 114. 

Bhatti, 144. 

Bhattumurti, 2l6, 221. 

Bhavasthala (Sivapuram) Ach- 
yuta Nayaka's benefaction at 
— , 270. 

Bhairava Nayaka, brother of 
^urappa Nayaka of Gingi, 

Bhimarathi (BhTma), 182, 224. 
Bhoganatha, 48, 50. 
Bhogikula, 115-f.n. 

Bhujabala Rao, officer under 
Vlrappa Nayaka during Jag- 
ga Raya's revolt, 260. 

Bhupati Ahladana Sira^chan- 
dra, 137. 

Bhupati Pradhanaraja Siras- 
chandra, 137. 

Bhupati Pritaladana Siraschan- 
dra, 137. 

Rhupati Udayar, son of Bukka 
n, 53, 54- 

Bhuvanadurga, Kauravadurga 
renamed as — , 345. 

Bhuvanagiri, 86. 

Bibbi, defeated by Rama Raja, 

Bidar, Sultan of — ,Narasa fights 
with the—, 8 ; defeated by Ra- 
ma Raya, 15 ; Cavalry of the 
— , defeated by Isvara Naya- 
ka at Bedandakota, 88, 106 ; 
defeated by Krishna Raya, 
112 ; defeated and captured 
by Sadasiva Nayaka of Ikkeri, 


Bidrur, 345. 

Bijapur, Sultan of — , invasion 
by the — , 22; Krishna Raya 
marches against the territories 
of — ,111; defeated on the 
banks of the Krishna by 
Krishna Raya, 112,131; de- 
feated and driven away by 
Sadasiva Nayaka of Ikkeri, 
195 ; marches into the terri- 
tory of Venkatadevaraya, 285, 
305 ; Chengamala Das of 
Tanjore escapes to the — , 
325 ; sends Majjhula Khan 
against Sankanna Nayaka of 
Ikkeri, 339 ; Bhadra of Ikkeri 
concludes peace with the — , 

Bijilikhan, 137. 

Bodajanna Mahapatra, 137. 

Bommalata Kala, same as Kala, 

Bommalata Virupak^ha, same as 
Virupaksha, Bommalata. 

Bonagiri, 86. 

Brigg's Ferishta,337-fn. 

Budahali, Chiefs of, 129. 

Bukka, Aravlti, general of Sa- 
luva Narasimha, 6, 8, 80 ; at- 
tends the Coronation of Krish- 
na Raya, 129, his family and 
descendants, 204. 

Bukka Raya I, 2, 23, 29, 48, 56, 



Bukka II, patron of Chaundapa- 

charya, 3, 54. 
Bukkama, mother of Narasa, 

170, 176. 
Bukkarayasamudram, 178, 230 
Bukkasamudram, 45. 
Burananagari, 228. 
Burhan-i-Ma'sir, 7. 
Burhan Nizam Shah, 228. 
Burnell, his catalogue of the 

Tanjore Palace Library, 284. 

Caesar Frederick, his inform- 
ation about Tirumala, 18, 222. 

Ceylon, Rama Raju Timma's 
invasion to — , 16 ; Prince Viru- 
paksha set up a pillar of Vic- 
tory in — , 53 ; importation of 
elephants from — , 4, 5, 20, 9I. 

Chaicha Dandesa, 52. 

Chamanamatya, 63. 

Champakapura, 66. 

Champakasaras, Matha con- 
structed at Anantasivapura by 
Venkatappa Nayaka of Ik- 
keri, 345. 

Champakatavi (Mannargudi). 
Achyuta's benefactions at — , 

Champaraya (Sambuvaraya) de- 
feated and killed by Kampa- 
raya, 23, 32 ; Sayana wins a 
victory over — , 49 ; re-estab- 
lished by Saluva Mangu, 29. 

Champesa, 267. 

Champu Bharata of Agastya, 


Chanakya, 144. 

Chandamarutam, 202. 

Chandra, Minister of Bukka, 56. 

Chandrabhanucharitram, 247. 

Chandrabhusha Kriyasakti Ra- 
ya, 61. 

Chandragiri, Saluva Narasimha's 
inscriptions extend from — to 
Nagamangala, 8; Achyuta's 
coronation, at — ,12 ; Saluva 
Narasimha's headquarters at — 
81 ; Achyuta stations troops 
at — , 159, 176 182 ; Rama 
Raya goes to — , 202 ; Venkata- 
patiraya, viceroy at — , 217 ; 

Srirangaraya visits, 231 ; 

Raghunatha of Tanjore goes 

to — , 285 ; the removal of the 

capital from — , 305 ; Sriranga 

III lost—, 309. 
Chandragutti, 182, 195. 
Chandrasekhara Pandya, 319. 
Channaya of Nagamangala 

brings on the invasion of 

Bijapur, 348. 
Charuchandrodayam, 241. 

Chattradhipati, title of the Mah- 

ratta ruler Rama Raja, 349. 
Chatupadyaratnakaram, 308. 
Chatura Kallinatha, 192. 
Chaunda of Keladi, 194. 

Chaundappa, father of Madhava 
confounded with the author of 
Prayogaratnamala, 3, 53. 

Chaundapacharya, 53. 

Chellappa, 158. 

Chencha, Rayadalavay helps 
Jagga Raya and is defeated 
at Topur, 290. 

Chenchu, helps Jagga Raya, 244. 

Chengamala Das, son ofVijaya- 
raghava Navaka of Tanjore, 

Chingleput, captured by Damar- 
la Chenna, 305. 

Chenji, 35. 

Chenna, Pochiraju, father-in- 
law of Prince Rama, 185. 

Chenna, helps against Jagga 
Raya, 244. 

Chenna captures Velur, 21, 

Chenna, Damarla, son of Da- 
marla Venkata, 304, 308. 

Chennamba, wife of Somasek- 
hara Nayaka of Ikkeri, 349. 

Chennambapura village founded 
by Chennamba of Ikkeri, 350. 

Chennamaraju, Chdruchandro- 
dayam dedicated to — , 241. 

Chennapatna (Mysore), 227, 230. 

Chennapatna (Madras), 21, 308. 

Chennasagaram, 21 ; Construc- 
ted by Damarla Venkata, 308. 

Chennubhatta, 51. 

Chennur, captured by Matli 
Ananta, 248. 

Chera, 155. 



Chernamulk rescued by Rana 
Jagadeka Raya, 229. 

Cheruku Racha Nayaka, 79. 

Cherukuri Lakshmldhara, 212. 

Chevva of Tanjore, same as 
China Chevva, 285, 323. 

Chevvamma, wife of Prince 
Rangapa, son of Venkatadri, 

Chidambaram, 91, 129, 202, 272. 

Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. 
Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri 
marches against — , 21; patron 
of Tirumalarya, 302 ; rejects 
the offer of an alliance with 
Chikka Deva Raya, 70, 309. 

Chikkadevarayavamsavali, 248 
302, 346. 

Chikkappa, Odeyar Minister of 
Bukka I, constructed the villa- 
ges of Anantasagaram and 
Bukkarayasamudram, 45. 

Chikka Raya, other name of 
Srlranga, 289, 19, 244. 

Chikka Sankanna Nayaka, 195, 

China, the importation of fine 

silks from — , 4, 57. 

Chinna Chevva, Viceroy of Tan- 
jore, his relation to Achyuta 
and benefactions, 254, 267 ; 
Tanjore detached from Madura 
and given to — , 323- 

Chinna Bomma Nayaka, patron 
of Appaya Dlkshlta, 250, 350. 

Chinna Malla, brother of China 
Chevva of Tanjore, 254. 

Chinnatambi Mudaliyar, Pesh- 
kar under Chokkanatha Na- 
yaka of Tanjore, 325. 

Chinna Timma Raja, patron of 
Bdlabhagavatamu, and his 
conquests in the Chola, Kerala, 
Pandya and Tiruvadi count- 
ries, 205 ; The commentary on 
Yddvabhyudava by Appayya 
DTkshita dedicated to — , 209. 

China Timma, Nadindla, 146. 

Chinavenkatadri, son of Achyu- 
ta Raya, 170. 

Chinnavenkatapati, son of Tim- 
i;ia, nephew of the Emperor 
Srlranga III, 31 1. 

Chinna Devi, Krishna Raya's 
queen, II7, 178. 

Chinna Venkata Raya. Krishua- 
rayavijayam dedicated to — , 
III, 129, 185 ; his family and 
descendants, 311. 

Chinna Venkata, Damarla, son 
of Damarla Chenna, 304. 

Chinnayfirya, father of Chaun- 
dapacharya, author of Prayo 
garatnamdld, 54. 

Chintanakal, the chief of — , 
helps Sivappa Nayaka of 
Ikkeri, 309. 

Chitaph Khan defeated by Ibra- 
him Kutb Mulk, 238. 

Chitaph Khan, defeated by 
Krishna Raya, I15, 132. 

Chitrakuta (Chidambaram), visi- 
ted by Aliya Rama Raya 

Chitravati, 45. 

Chitraju of Nandela, officer un- 
der Raghunatha of Tanjore, 

Chittakhan, defeated by Jaga- 
deka Raya, 228, 229. 

Chitti Gangana, Minister of 
Saluva Narasimha, 146. 

Chokkanatha of Madura, sup- 
ports Srlranga III, 21 ; offers a 
marriage alliance with Tan- 
jore, 324 ; appoints Alagiri as 
governor at Tanjore, 325. 

Chola country, Narasa , Nayaka 
invades the—, 9 ; Sellappa 
governor of the — , 12, 83, 106, 


Cholaga allies with the Portu- 
guese, 20 ; the portrait of Ra^ 
ghunatha's victory over — at 
Tanjore, 265 ; his cruel treat- 
ment of the surrounding 
people, 271 ; his alliance with 
Krishnappa Nayaka of Gingi 
and defeat, 288. 

Chotangi (Chautang?) 57. 

Christianity, the inhabitants of 
the fishery coast converted 
to — , 17. 

Coimba]tore District, 86. 

Coleroon, 20, 34. 267. 

Comorin, Cape, 117. 

Conjiveram, 132. 



Cuddapah, 143. 

Cuttack, 133, 184, 238, 306, 319. 

Dadoji, ambassador of Bahmani 
Sultan at the court of the 
Gajapati, 130. 
Dakshina Kasi (Tenkasi), I17. 
Dalavay Chenchu, associate of 
Jagga Raya in his revolt, 260. 
Damarla Vengalabhupala, 

author of Bahulasvacharitramu, 
Danivasa, Venkatappa Nayaka 
of Ikkeri defeats his enemies 
at 344. 
Danvers' the Portuguese in India, 

287, 337. 
Dasarna, 92. 

Dattamantri,Tarigoppula, Minis- 
ter of Venkatapati Raya, 247. 
Delhi, 183, 306, Sankanna Naya- 

ka's exploits at — , 338. 
DepayT, Queen of Bukka I, 23. 
Desayamatya, governor of Kon- 
davldu and author of the 
commentary on the Mahim- 
jiastava, 151. 
Devagiri, 183. 
DevakT, grandmother of Narasa 

Nayaka, 170, 176. 
Devakotta, headquarters of 

Cholaga, 267. 
Devarakonda, 45. 
Deva Raya II, patronises Srl- 

natha, 4. 
Deva Raya, son of Bhaira Devi 

of Gerasappi, 344. 
Devyaparadhastotra of Vidya- 

ranya, 50. 
Dhanushkoti, I17. 
Dharanivaraha, 89. 
Dharapuram, captured by 

Saluva Narasimha, 8. 
Dharma, Damarla, son of Da- 
marla Vengala, 304. 
Dharma, Damarla, father of 

Damarla Vengala» 304. 
Dharmavaram, 178. 
Dharwar, 344. 
Dhenunatha, 267. 
Dhurjati, Kavi, 129. 
Dindima, defeated by Srlnatha, 

Dindima Rajanatha, author of 
Saluvabhyudayam, 30, author 
of Bhagavatachampu, 176. 

Dindima vSarvabhauma, 85. 

Diyakara Nayaka, brother of 
Surappa Nayaka of Gingi, 272. 

Dodda Sankanna Nayaka of 
Keladi, 194, 33*7. 

Doddayacharya, 202. 

Doni Sriranga Raja, 205. 

Doramannelu (subordinate 

chiefs), 118. 

Dumakur? (Tumkur), conquered 
by Narasa, 171. 

Dutch at Pulikat, 21, 308. 

Dvaraka, 66. 

Eggeling, Professor, India Office 
_ Library Catalogue by — , 5. 
Ekamranatha, author of Jamba- 

vatiparinayam and Satyapari- 

nayam, 227, 229. 
Ekojee, Southern invasion of — 

22 ; defeats Alagiri and cap- 
tures Tanjore, 326. 
Elamanchr country, 45. 
Ella, Matla, captures Siddhout, 

EUamarajucheruvu, constructed 

by Matla Ananta, 248. 
Erode, battle of, 21, 308. 
Errama Setti, officer under 

Vlrappa Nayaka during Jagga 
_ Raja's revolt, 260. 
Ettur, 71. 

Ettur Narasimhacharya, same as 
Narasimhacharya, Ettur, 6. 


Fazl Khan, general of ,lbrahim 

Kutb Shah, brings Sriranga 

Raya to the court of Kutb 

Shah, 236. 
Feringhis, 20. 
Ferishta, his account of Achyu- 

ta's reign, 14 ; his derivation 

of Savai, 103, 337. 
Firoz, Bahmani Sultan, effective 

conquest of Warrangal by — , 4. 
FirOz-Shah Bahmani, patronised 

Avachi Tippaya Setti, 4, 57. 
Forgotten Empire, A. I. 



Gadag, the chief of — helps Si- 

vappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 310. 
Gadi Timma Raju, officer under 

Raghunatha of Tanjore, 260. 
Gadval, supports Aliya Rama 

Raya, 179. 
Gajanur, presented to Venka- 

tappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 344. 

Gajapati, Saluva Narasimha's 
invasion against the — ,9; 
patronises Avachi Tippaya 
Setti, 57 ; Krishna Raya's war 
with the — , 115, 130, 133, and 
153 ; Krishna Raya's marriage 
with his daughter, 143, 158. 

Gajapati, Prataparudra, his war 
with Krishna Raya, II ; his 
daughter married to Krishna 
Raya, 145 ; Krishna Raya 
captures his son in battle, 140 ; 
Krishna Raya's campaign 
against the — , 133. 

Gajapati, Kapilesvara, Orissa 

first comes to prominence 

under — , 5. 
Gajendramoksham, 117. 
Gajendramoksham, work by 

Raghunatha, 267. 
Ganapati, KakatTya, 4, 145. 
Gandaraditya, title of Pemma- 

sani Timma, 242. 
Gandaraganda, title of Pemma- 

sani Timma, 242. 
Gandikota, supports Aliya Rama 

Ra'ya, 15, 88, II4, 181. 
Gangadasapratapavilasam, 5, 65. i 
Gangadhara, author of Ganga- ' 

dasapratapavilasam, 65, 
Gangadharakavi Addanki, 

author of Tapatlsamvaranam, 

Gangana, Nadindla, I46. 
Ganga Raja of Ummattur, rebel- 
lion of — , II; defeated by 

Krishna Raya, III, 130. 
Gangadevi, wife of Kampana, 

2, 23, 48. 61 
Gangamma (Rana), 228. 
Ganginayaka, defeated by 

Somadevaraja, 79. 
Ganginayanikonda, 80. 

Garikipadu, 109, granted to An- 
nambhatta by Aliya Rama 
Raya, 241. 

Garudadri (Ahobilam), 205. 

Garudanagara, attacked bySan- 
gama II, 50. 

Garudanarayana, banner pre- 
sented to Pemmasani Timma, 

Gatata Khan, Amin Khan's 
brother, 236. 

Gaura Reddi, defeated by Soma 
deva Raja, 79. 

Gauta, Saluva, 90. 

Gautama (Saluva), 32, 83, 

Gautami (Godavari), 183. 

Gaya, 305. 

Gerasappi (Gersoppa), Bhaira 
Devi, ruler of — defeated by 
Sankanna Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

Ghanadri (Penukonda), acquired 
by Devaraya II, 68. 

Ghanagiri (Penukonda), protec- 
ted by Jagadeva Raya of 
Chennapatna, 229 ; Raghu- 
natha of Tanjore placed 
Ramadevaraya on the throne 
of — 255; Srirangaraya's capi- 
tal, 302. 

Ghanta Singayya, same as Sin- 
gayya, Ghanta. 

Ghatiicachala, 202. 

Gingi, captured by Saluva Nara- 
simha, 8, 35, 86, 309.' 

Gingi, Nayakas of, 21, 265, 287. 

Giriyappa, Gobburi, father-in- 
law of Prince Gopala, 222. 

Giryamba, 228. 

Glta Govinda, 212. 

Goa, Madhavacharya, governor 
at — 51 ; musk imported from 
— , 57; invasion of Sankanna 
Nayaka of Keladi against -^, 


Gobburivaru, 131, 229. 

Goda, 133. 

Godavari, the Vijayanagar fron- 
tier, 8. 

Goduguchinta, 88. 

Gokarnam, 9, 10, 1 17, 171 ; 
Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri's 
benefactions at — , 347. 

Goleru, 183. 



Golkonda, Sultan of, Aliya 
Ramaraya defeats the — , 15, 
183 ; siege of Penukonda by—, 
19; invasion of Vijayanagar 
territory by — , 22 ; Krishna 
Raya's success over the — , 112, 
131 ; captures KondavTdu, 240 ; 
invades Vijayanagar terri- 
tory, 285, 305. 

Gopa, Nadindla, nephew of 
Saluva Timma, II, II6, 144, 

149, 151. 

Gopa, Saluva, 62. 

Gopala, son of Prince Rangapa, 
and grandson of Venkatadri, 
222; adopts ^riranga III, 311. 

Gopama, wife of AravTti Timma, 
205, 210. 

Gopamamba, wife of Nadindla 
Varada, I46. 

Gopana, Brahman general, inva- 
sion of the south, and restora- 
tion of Srlrangam, 27, 29, 48. 

Gopa-Tippa, Saluva, 62, 63 ; 
author of Taladlpika and the 
commentary on the Alankara- 
sutra, 62, 63. 

Gorashtra (Goa), Ikkeri Basava 
rules over, 350. 

Goshtlpura (Tirukkottiyur), 34. 

Govinda Dlkshita, Minister of 
Achyuta and Raghunatha of 
Tanjore, 253 ; author of Sahit- 
yasudha, 267; advises Acliyu- 
ta to renounce the throne 
in favour of Raghunatha, 270, 
286; was commander-in-chief 
as well as prime minister of 
Raghunatha, 323. 

Grand Anient cut by Jagga 
Raya, 20. 

Gujjari Kalyana Rao, 116. 

Gulbarga, I16. 

Gunda, Saluva, 31, 83, 91. 

Gujjula Vlri Nedu, defeated by 
Somadevaraja, 79. 

Guntur, 4, 112. 

Gurunatha, Venkatappa Nayaka 
of Ikkeri constructs the temple 

of— 345- 
Gurvama, wife of Damarla Ven- 

kata, 304. 
Gutti, Rama Raya retires to — , 

15, 113, 181, 182, 190. 

Gutti (Chandragutti), 195. 
Guzerat, 63, 64, 1 51. 


Haiderabad, 171. 

Haidar Khan, Ibrahim Kutb 

Shah's general, captures Kon- 

dapalli, 238. 
Haig, Colonel, 115. 
Hallisusena (Ali Hussain ?), 103. 
Hamsa, fort, 183. 
Handevaru, 233. 
Hande Anantapuram, the annals 

of— ,15, 44, 178, 231. 
Hanuma of Santebennur attacks 

Venkatappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

Hanumappa Nayudu, Hande 
helps Aliya Rama Raya, 178, 


Hanumoji Pantulu, ambassador 
of the Padishah ? at the court 
of Raghunatha of Tanjore, 

Hanugallu (Hangal), Venka- 
tappa Nayaka of Ikkeri erects 
a pillar of victoiy at — , 344. 

Haravilasam of SrTnatha, 4, 55. 

Harihara I, TJ. 

Harihara II, , patronised Avachi 
Tippaya Setti, 4; patron of 
Chennubhatta, 49, 52, 54, 55, 

Harima, sister of Deva Raya II, 

Harischandra, Orissa chief, 
taken prisoner by Haidar 
Khan, Ibrahim Kutb Shah's 
general, 238. 

Harpanahalli, the chief of — 
helps Sivappa Nayaka of 
Ikkeri, 309. 

Hassan, Kodandarama defeats 
Dalavay Kumarayya at — , 22 ; 
Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri 
cedes to Sriranga Raya III, 
309 ; Sivappa Nayaka of 
Ikkeri defeated at — , 21. 

Hayapati, 160. 

Hemadri, 267. 

Hemakuta, 139. 

Heuna, the — defeated by Nara- 
sa Nayaka, 9, 106, 172. 



Hibbejagara, fort constructed 
by Venkatappa Nayaka of 
Ikkeri, 344. 

Himalayas, the, 91. 

Hlra Vijaya Suri given the title 
Savai by Akbar, 103. 

Hole HonnCir added to Keladi, 

Hukumi, 306. 
Hurmatti ( ?), II4. 
Hurumanji (Ormuz), 57. 
Huttari ( ?), 88. 


Ibharam, 2l6. 

Ibrahim Adil Shah, invasion 
against — , 337. 

Ibrahim Kutb Shah, The Nawab 
of Ahmadnagar renounces the 
friendship of — , 2l6 ; invades 
the Vijayanagar territory and 
occupies Ahobilam, 233 ; The 
conquests of — , 236 ; captures 
Udayagiri, Kondavldu and 
other places, 240, 243. 

Ikkeri, 21, 131, 309. 

Ikkeri Arangam, 118. 

Imadu-1 Mulk, 184. 

Immadi, title, 103. 

Immadi Ankusa of Chenna- 
patna, 227, 229. 

Immadideva Raya (Mallikar- 
juna\ 192-fn. 

Immadideva Raya, author of 
Mahanatakasudhanidhi, 60. 

Immadi Hampa Nayudu, Hande, 


Immadi Sadasiva Nayaka, 196. 

Indraji, 182. 

Irugapa Dandanatha, General ' 
of Harihara if, author of ' 
Nanartharatnamala, 52. 

i^vara Nayaka, general of | 
Saluva Narasimha fights with 1 
the Sultan of Bidar, 8 ; his con- I 
quests, 87, 106, 108, 170, 176. ! 

Jaffna captured by the Portu- 
guese, 20, 265, 287. 

Jagadeka Raya (Rana) of Chen- 
napatna, 228. 

Jagajjhampa, umbrella pre- 
sented to Sivappa Nayaka of 
Ikkeri, 347. 

Jagannath, 233. 

Jaganmohini, Gajapati's daugh- 
ter, 116. 

Jagatapa Raya (Rana) of Chen- 
napatna, 228. 

Jagga Raya, Gobburi, massacres 
the royal family, 20; different 
from Jagadeva Raya of Chen- 
napatna, 229; war with — , 244; 
killed by Raghunatha of 
Tanjore, 255 ; battle between 
Raghunatha and Jagga Raya, 
259, 272, 286, 305, 308. 

Jaimini Bharatam, dedicated to 

Saluva Narasimha, 2, 29, 48, 85. 
Jakkana, author of Vikramarka- 

charitram, 63. 
Jalanogi ( ?), Avachi Tippaya 

Setti imports gold from — , 57. 
Jalihalu, Sadasiva Nayaka of 

Ikkeri conquers — , 195. 
Jallipalli, captured by Krishna 

Raya from the Gajapati, 138. 
Jambavatlkalyanam by Ekamra- 

natha, 227. 
Jambavatlkalyanam of Krishna 

Raya, II, 142/ 
Jambukesvaram, Krishna Raya 

visits — ; 91. 
Jambulamadaka (Jammalma- 

dugu), battle of — , 248. 
Jammiloya, Krishna Raya con- 
quers — , 133- 
Jamburadesa, the governor of — ■ 

becomes hostile to Keladi, 337. 
Janakamma, wife of Prince 

Rama, grandson of Aliya 

Rama Raya, 185. 
Jannamantri, father of Vennela- 

ganti Siddhamantri, 63. 
Janyaia Kasavapatra defeated 

by Krishna Raya, 137. 
Jayadeva, 212. 
Jayamangala, 291. 
Jayanissaru, 291. 
Jayantasena, Raga invented by 

Ragunatha of Tanjore, 269. 
Jelurisimhasanapattana, 191. 
Jillella Krishna Raju, father-in- 
law of the emperor Venkata- 

pati, 243. 



Jingi, Nayaka of — defeated by 
Vijayaraghava, 255 ; defeated 
by Damarla Chenna, 305 ; 
account of the Nayaks of — , 
272, 305, 308. 

Jurnuru, 183. 

Juturu, Victory of Aliyarama 
at — , 182 ; Victory of Kodanda- 
rama at — , 3 1 2. 


Kacha of Adoni defeated by 

AravTti Ramaraja, 102, 204. 
Kachacharitra, 291. 
Kadavars same as Vanyarajas, 

Kakatiya, Ganapati, 4. 
Kakutsthavijayam, written by 

Matli Ananta, 248. 
Kala, Bommalata, patron of 

Lrlavati of Vallabhacharya, 

Kalahasti, I17, 132, 158, 304. 
Kajlars, Cholaga's oppression of 

the — , 271. 
Kalamba, fort, 183, 306. 
Kalavati, wife of Raghunatha 

of Tanjore, 254. 
Kalika, Venkatappa Nayaka of 

Ikkeri constructs the temple 

of — 345. 
Kalinga, Saluva Narasamha's 

campaign against the — , 9, 91 ; 

Krishna Raya's campaign 

against the — , 132, 
Kaljinatha, Chatura, 192 ; author 

of the commentary on the 

Sangltaratnakaram, 192. 
Kaluvakolu, captured by Soma- 

devaraja, 80. 
Kalyana, the capital of Saluva 

Gunda, 32, 83 ; conquered by 

Krishna Raya, 1 16; captured 

by Aliya Ramaraya, 182 ; 

Sadasiya Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

195 ; Srirangaraya invades 

against — , 231. 
Kamadhenu, commentary on 

Vamana's Kavyalankara 

Sutras, 62. 
Kamamba, mother of Chaunda- 

pacharya, 54. 
Kamandakam, dedicated to 

Kondraju Venkataraju, 233. 

Kambam, 140. 

Kambammet, conquered by 
Krishna Raya, 138; captured 
by Ibrahim Kutb Mulk, 238. 

Kambugirisvami hills, 45. 

Kampa, brother of Bukka Raya, 
46, 48. 

Kampana, the elder son of 
Bukka Raya, 23. 

Kampana, Kumara, his invasion 
into the south, conquers Sam- 
buvaraya ; restores Srirangam 
and captures Madura, 9, 23, 
29, 32. 

Kampana, Sangama his son, 47. 

Kampanna, general, 114. 

Kamparayacharitram, 2, 23. 

Kanakagiri, conquered by 
Krishna Raya, 133. 

Kanchi, advance of the Gaja- 
patis as far as — , 5, 7, 50 ; 
Saluva Narasimha ruling 
over — , 83 ; Krishna Raya's 
benefactions at — , 132 ; Achy- 
uta Raya's benefactions at — , 


Kandanol (Kurnool), captured 
by Somadevaraja, JJ, 178, 181 ; 
Aliya Rama Raya captures — , 
15, 102, 204; Venkatadri had 
his headquarters at — , 222. 

Kandukur, 88, I14, 131. 

Kandur (?), 114. 

Kanikallu, granted to Hande 
Hanumappa Nayudu, 179. 

Kanji-Kaveri-Pothi, 5. 

Kannanur, Muhammadan in- 
vaders encamp at — , 34. 

Kauravadurga, captured by 
Venkatappa Nayaka of Ik- 
keri, 345. 

Kantakanana (Mulvay), 23. 

Kantaraya, Tirumala, 137. 

Kanyakumari, I17, 182. 

Kapilesvara Gajapati, joint 
invasion of Vijayanagar by — 
and the Bahmani Sultan, 5, 7, 

Kappanas, ill. 

Karnata, 23. 

Karuvanallur, Krishna Raya's 
benefactions at — , II7. 

Kasappa Odeya, defeated by 
Araviti Rama Raya, 102. 



Kasavapatra, Janyala, defeated 
by Krishna Raya, 133, 137. 

Kashmir, Sankanna Nayaka of 
Ikkeri visits, 338. 

Kasi, Saluva Narasimha's coro- 
nation at — , 91 ; Sankanna 
Nayaka of Ikkeri visits and 
makes valuable endowments 
at — , 338. 

Kaslkhandam, 62. 

Kasturi Ranga, of the Yacha 
family, brother-in-law of 
Damarla Venkata, 304. 

Kasturi Raju, officer under 
Raghunatha of Tanjore, 260. 

Kasturi, Rana, son of Ankusa, 

Kataka, 83. 

Katta Rangappa Raju, officer 
under Raghunatha of Tanjore, 

Kaveri, 91, 108, 138, 170, 21/, 

Kavichamatkarapradarsini, 225. 
Kavi-Devendra, title of Valla- 

bhacharya, author of Lllavati, 


Kavisarvabhauma, title of Raja- 
natha, 117. 

Kavyalankarasutra, 62. 

Kayal, conquered by Udaya 
Martanda Varman, 16. 

Kaza, 151. , 

Kedara, Sivappa Nayaka's 
benefactions to — , 347. 

Kedaresa, God, 338. 

Keladi, 194. 

Keiadi Basavabhupala, author 
of Sivatatvaratnakara, 194. 

Kembavi, Krishna Raya's vic- 
tory at — , 133- 

Kerala (Malayalam), 34, 195, 
205; Sivappa Nayaka of 
Ikkeri constructs forts in — , 

Kesama, wife ot Damarla Ven- 

gala, 304. 
Ke^ava, Damarla, son of 

Damarla Venkata, 304. 
Ke^avappa Nayudu, Bisapak- 

kam, General of Visvanatha 

Nayaka, 323. 
Khandanapura (KannanQr), 

captured by Mussalmans, 34. 

Khan Khan defeated by Amin 

Khan, 240. 
Khem Naik, his invasion of 

Jaffna, 287. 
Khurasanivaru, 129. 
Kiratas, 159. 
Kodanda Rama, his invasion of 

the Mysore territory, 21, 22. 
Koilkonda, captured by Ibrahim 

Kutb Mulk, 238. 
Kokatam village granted to 

Peddana, 153. 
Kommadharapura, 86. 
Kona conquered by Krishna 

Raya, 133. 
Kona, elder brother of Aliya 

Rama Raya, 216, 224. 
Kona, Damarla, brother of 

Damarla Vengala, 304. 
Kona, Nadindla, elder brother 

of Nadindla Appa, I46. 
Konamamba, mother of Siddhi- 

raju Timmaraju, 211. 
Konappa, son of Araviti Timma, 

Konda, son of AravTti Rama 

Raja, 103, 216. 
Konda, son of Aliya Rama 

Raya, 184. 
Konda, Nadindla, uncle of 

Nadindla Appa, 146. 
Konda, Jillella, father-in-law of 

Prince Timma, nephew of the 

Emperor Srlranga III, 311. 
Kondamarusu, Rayasam, 1 14. 
Kondamarusu, II3. 
Kondamma, wife of Ahya Rama 

Raya, 184. 
Kondamma, wife of the Emperor 

Venkatapati, 243. 
Kondamma, wife ot the Emperor 

Rama I, 244. 
Kondapalli, captured by Krishna 

Raya, 131 ; captured by Aliya 

Rama Raya, 184; captured 

by Ibrahim Kutb Shah of 

Golkonda, 238. 

KondavTdu, Kumaragiri Reddi 
of — , 4, 57 ; captured by 
Krishna Raya, 112, 114, 131, 
133, 135, 158; Nadindla Gopa, 
Viceroy at — , 144, 149, 158 ; 
Siddhiraju Timaraju, Gov- 
ernor at — , 211 ; Ekamranatha 



born at — , 22/ ; captured by 
Amin Mulk, 240. 

Kondayya (Rayasam Konda- 
marusu), 114. 

Kondraju Venkataraju, captures 
Ahobilam and makes endow- 
ments there, 233. 

Konerinmaikondan, 171. 

Konerunatha Kavi, author of 
Balabhagavatam, 204, 225. 

Konetamma, wife of Rangappa, 
son of Venkatadri, 222. 

Konetamma, wife of Venkata- 
pati, brother of Srlranga III, 


Konetamma, wife of Prince 
Timma, nephew of the Em- 
peror Srlranga III, 311. 

Koneti Kondraju, officer under 
Raghunatha of Tanjore, 260. 

Konetiraja, 108, 171. 

Kongu, conquered by Saluva 
Narasimha, 8. 

Kongudharapuri, 86. 

Kota Rachuru, captured by 
Somadevaraja, 80. 

Kotikolahala, 195. 

Kotlsvara, Bhadrappa Nayaka's 
benefactions at — , 348. 

Kottamu, captured by Krishna 
Raya, 133. 

Kovela Nelluru, captured by 
Saluva Narasimha, 88. 

Krldabbiramam, translation of 
Premabhiramam, 4, 55. 

Krimikantha Chola, 202. 

Krishnambika, Saluva Timma's 
sister, I44, 146, 1 49. 

Krishnamisra, 144. 

Krishnamma, wife of Venkata- 
dri, '222. 

Krishna, River, 112, 160, 240, 

Krishna Raya, 10, II, 12, 13, 17, 
106, 129; Amuktamalyada 
written by — , 132 ; Parijata- 
paharanam dedicated to — , 
138 ; JambavatTkalyanam 

written by — , I42, 143, 144, 
146, 148, 151, 152; honours 
Vallabhacharya, 154; referen- 
ces in Tamil, 155, 178 ; Rama 
Raya marries the daughter of 
— , 184, 190, 241, f.n., 302; 

defeats Nagama Nayaka, 319; 
his campaigns and benefac- 
tions, 112, 131. 

Krishna, tutor of Krishna Raya 
in Music, 252. 

Krishna (Krishnapa), the son of 
Aliya Rama Raya, 184. 

Krishna, grandfather of Chevva 
of Tanjore, 254. 

Krishna, Damarla, son of Ven- 
kata, 304. 

Krishna Raja, Nandyala defeat- 
ed by Venkatapati, 243. 

Krishnamba, wife of Damarla 
Chenna, 304. 

Krishnamma, wife of the Em- 
peror Venkatapatiraya, 243. 

Krishnappa Nayaka of Gingi 
allies with Cholaga, 272 ; is 
rescued from prison by 
Raghunatha of Tanjore, 286 ; 
defeated by Damarla Ven- 
kata, 308. 

Krishnarayasamudram, 1 1 7. 

Krishna-Raya vijayam, II, III, 
116, f.n., 129. 

Krishnarjunasamvadam of 

Nadindla Gopa Mantri, 149. 

Krishnayya, Sabinlsu officer 

under Kodandarama at the 

battle of Hassan, 312. 
Kriyasaktiraya, Chandrabhusha 

honours Srinatha, 61. 
Kriyaskti Desika, 51, 61. 
KshlrataranginI (Palar), 23. 
Kudalattur, Damarla Chenna's 

victory at — , 305. 
Kulasekhara, other name of 

Perumal Parakrama Pandya 

Kulbarga, 132, 133, 183, 195, 231. 

Kumara Dhurjati, author of 

Krishnarajavijayam, III, 129. 

Kumaragiri Reddi of Kondavldu 
patronises Avachi Tippayya 
Setti, 4, 57. 

Kumara Hammlra Mahapatra 
defeated by Krishna Raya, 

Kumarajagadeka Raya, Rana, 

Kumara Kampana, his con- 
quests, 2. 



Kumara Krishnappa, his share 
in Vitthala's campaigns, 17. 

Kumara Rangayya, Officer 
under Raghunatha of Tanjore, 

Kumarayya, Dalavay, defeated 
by Kodandarama, 22, 312. 

Kumara Sarasvati, his verses 
about Krishna Raya, 155. 

Kumara-Tatacharya, 126. 

Kumbhakonam, 91, 175, 252, 267, 
274, 288, 323. 

Kumbhase (Kumsi?), Venka- 
tappa Nayaka of Ikkeri de- 
feats his enemies at—, 344. 

Kundani conquered by Saluva 
Narasimha, 88. 

Kuniyur plates of Venkata II, 

Kuntala, 83, 106. 

Kuntisara (?), 80. 

Kuram family, 34. 

Kurralam, I17. 

Kurugodu, 179. 

Kutavachalendratatavasin, 91. 

Kutbu-1-Mulk, 184. 

Kutb Shah defeated by Krishna 
Raya, 113, assists Salakam 
Timma, 178, defeated by Tiru- 
mala Raya, 213, The Nizam 
repudiates the friendship of — , 
ri6 ; defeated by Venkatadri 
222, protected by Aliya Rama 
Raya, 224, defeated by Srl- 
ranga Raya, 230, 306, 311. 

Kuvalayavilasa, dedicated to 
Srlranga Raya I, 230. 

Kuvalayananda, of Appayya 
Dikshita, 250. 

Lakkamamba, sister of Aliya 

Rama Raya, 225. . 
Lakkamba, wife of I^vara, 106. 
Lakkamba, wife of Araviti 

Rama Raja, 103, 204. 
Lakkanna, Governor of Madura, 

Lakkanna organises the Madura 

province, 9. 
Lakkuhalli presented to Venka- 

tappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 344. 

Lakshmama, wife of Saluva 

Ti mma, 146. 
Lakshmamba, mother-in-law of 

Raghunatha of Tanjore, 254. 
Laksh mamba, wife of Damarla 

Ven gala, 304. 
Laks hmamma, wife of Aliya 
! Rama Raya, 184. 
I Lakshmamma, wife of Srlranga, 
! son of Aliya Rama, 185. 
I Lakshmamma, wife of Rana 
I Anku^a, 228. 
j Lakshmidhara, Cherukuri, 212. 
: Lakshmidhara, Lolla, 151. 

Lakshmlkumara Tatacharya 

I precepter of Venkatapatlraya, 


Lakshmlnarayana, Venkatappa 

I Nayaka of Ikkeri constructs 

the temple of — , 345. 

Lakshmlpatiraju defeated by 

Krishna Raya, 137. 
Lakshmlvilasam, work by 

Rayasam Venkatapati, 230. 
Lakshmlvilasam, palace of 
Raghunatha at Tanjore, 271, 
Lilavatr, 156. 

Linga, Harihara II's general, 56. 
Linga, Veluri, donor of the 
Vilapakam grant, 251, 

Damarla Chenna makes war 
on — , 21, 305. 
Lingamantri, cousin of Chenna- 
maraja saves the life of the 
General Pemmasani PedavTra, 
Llngamatya, NadTndla, 148. 
Llngamba, wife of Damarla 

Chenna, 304. 
Lingamma wife of Rana 

Anku^a, 228. 
Lokacharya (Pillai), 33. 
Lolla Lakshmidhara, 151. 


Mackenzie Records, 12, 22, II2, 

239. 312, 319. 
Madalasa Charitra, work by 

Krishna Raya, 133. 
Madanagopala Vilasam, palace 

at Tanjore, 265, 



Madana Mulk Band, defeated 

by Gatata Khan, 236. 
Madanna, Governor of the Chola 

country, 9. 
Madanna, RaviUa, associate of 

Jagga Raya in his rebellion, 

Madanna, officer under Raghu- 

natha of Tanjore, 260. 
Madarasa, Governor of Banka- 

pura, 196, 
Madaya, Nadindla, 146. 
Madayagari Mallaya, author of 

Rajasekharacharitramu, 113. 
Maddagiri, the chief of — helps 

Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

Mademulu reduced by Krishna 

Raya, 133, 236. 
Madhava, the establisher of the 

path of the Upanishads, 3, 

belongs to a Gotra different 

from that of Madhava Vidya- 

ranya, 3, 5, 61. 

Madhava Vidyaranya, same as 

Vidyaranya Madhava. 
Madhavacharya ; same as 

Madhava Vidyaranya. 
Madhava Mantri, Nadindla, I46. 
Madhavlya Dhatuvrtti, 46. 
Madhuravani, poetess in the 

Court of Raghunatha of 

Tanjore, 270. 
Madhuravijayam of Gangadevi, 


Madhyarjunam, 324. 

Madiraja, Saluva, 32. 

Madras, constructed by Ayyapa, 

Madura, Mussalman Garrisons 
at — , 2, 29. Narasa Nayaka I 
marches against — , 9, 10, 13. I 
Kamparaya conquers the ' 
sultan of — , 24. Saluva Mangu | 
conquers — , 32. Nayakship | 
of — founded, 17. Saluva ! 
NarasTmha marches to — , 92. \ 
Narasa captures the town | 
of — , 106, 108. Salakam ! 
Timma marches to — ; 1 59. | 
Raghunatha defeats the Na- i 
yak of — , 255, 265. Venkata- 
patiraya lays siege to — , 302, | 
305, 309. i 

j Mahabali, 18. 

Mahacharya, 202. 
j Mahadevapura, town presented 
to Sankanna Nayaka, 337. 
Majjhula Khan, officer of Bija- 

pur sent against Ikkeri, 339. 
Mahanatakasudhanidhi of 

Immadi Deva Raya, 60. 
Mahanatakasyagrajata Kavya, 

I Mahimnastava, 151. 
I Mahishmati, 306. 
i Mahammad, Bahmani Sultan, 
fights with Saluva Nara- 
simha, 7. 

I Mahammad, fights against 
I Somadeva and is taken pri- 
I soner, 6, ^y ; probably Maham- 
! mad Shah I, Bahmani, 7. 
; Mahrattas, Gingi and Tanjore 
fall into the hands of the — ,21. 
I Mahur (Mahura), 88, 183, 306. 
! Maidavolu, 149. 

Mailara, Venkatappa Nayaka of 
\ Ikkeri constructs the temple 

, of— ,345. 

I Makaraju helps Jagga Raya, 

244, 290, 308. 
Makkha, 183, 225, 305. 
Malakappa Nayudu Hande, 231 

Malayalam, 34, 195. 
Malayakuta, 138. 
Malayamaruta Kavi, 138. 
Mallambika, Queen of Saluva 

Narasimha, 83, 90. 
Mallamma (Rana), 228. 
Mallana, Madayagari, I13, 131, 

Mallappa, officer under Raghu- 
natha of Tanjore, 260. 
Mallarashtra, granted to Basava 

of Ikkeri, 350. 
Mallayya, Nandi, 87. 
Mallikarjuna, son of Deva Raya, 

beat off the invasion of the 

Bahmani Sultan and the Gaja- 

pati, 5, 6, 7, 65, 192. 
Mallukhan, 137. 
Mdndbharana, 10, 1 72. 
Mdriabhusha, killed by Narasa 

Nayaka, 9, 172. 
Manakavacha, other name Of 

Manabhubha, 172. 



Manavadurga, Narasa's conquest 

of — , 10, 105, 108, 171. 
Manchapacharya, brother of 

Chaundapacharya, 54. 
Manduva, 88, 225, 306. 
Mangu, Saluva, see Saluva 

Mannargudi, 254, 255, 267. 
Mannaru Dasa, son of Vijaya- 

raghava Nayaka of Tanjore, 

Mannehamvira, title of Matla 

Ananta, 248. 
Mannemartanda, title of Pen- 

mesani Timma, 242. 
Manuboliraju, officer under 

Raghunatha of Tanjore, 260. 
Manucharitram, 152, 158. 
Manuva, 171, 205. 
Manvi (Manavadurga), 10, 88, 

106, 171, 205, 225. 
Marakatanagara (Virinchipu- 

ram), 23. 
Marava, the — killed by Narasa 

Nayaka, 9, 108. 
Marco Polo, 4. 

Masur added to Keladi, 337. 
Maukti katulapurnsha, 1 39. 
Mayana, Sayana's son, 47. 
Mayura (Mayavaram) Raghu- 

natha's benefactions at — , 324. 
Melkote, 34. 
Metuku (Metk) captured by 

Ibrahim Kutb Shah, 238. 
Midigesi, battle at — , 241. 
Mopuru, village granted to 

Vinikonda Vallabharaya, 56. 
Mosalimadugu, 80. 
Motupalli, inscription of Kaka- 

tiya Ganapati, 4. 
Mudugal (Mudgal), 80, 1 1 2, 131, 

182, 224. 
Mukku Timmana, I13. 
Mukundadeva, respects Paran- 

ku4a, 233. 
Mukunda Harichandan, usurper- 
king of Orissa, 233, 238. 
Mulbagal, 2, 62. 
Mulkinadu, 56. 
Mummadi, title, I03. 
Munnali (Minnal ?), Linga of 

Vellore defeated by Damar- 

la Chenna at — , 305. 
MuralTdhara Dasa, 154. 

Murari, 195. 

Murasas, Raghunatha reduces 

the — , 285. 
Murteppa, officer of Raghunatha 

of Tanjore, 260. 
Murtija Khan defeated by Rana 

Jagadeka Raya, 228, 229. 
Murtimamba, wife of China- 

Chevva of Tanjore, 254, 285, 

Murtimamba, wife of Achyuta 

Nayaka of Tanjore, 254, 
Mylapore, 21, 308. 
Mysore, the modern, formation 

of the — , 19, 21, 22, 302, 312. 
Mysore Archaeological Report, 



Nadabala Nayaka, 79. 
Nadindla Gopa, same as Gopa, 

Nagamandala, 91. 
Nagamangala, Saluva Narasim- 

ha's inscriptions extend from 

Chandragiri to — , 8. 
Nagama Nayaka, sent against 

Virasekharachoja, serpersedes 

the Pandya in authority, 12, 

17, III, 319. 
Nagamba, mother of Krishna 

Raya, 106, 108, 109, 172. 
Nagamangala, 348. 
Nagarakhanda, 91. 
Nagara^a Nambi, 155. 
Nagarjunakonda, 114, 184. 
Nagavamsi, I15. 
Naishadham, 61. 
Nalacharitram of Raghunatha, 

Namana Mantri, ancester of 

Nadindla Gopa, 146. 
Nanartharatnamala, 52. 
Nandanandana, 291. 
Nandela, 129, 179, 243. 
Nandi Mallayya, same as Mal- 

layya, Nandi. 
Nandi Singamatya, father of 

Nandi Timmakavi, 138. 
Nandi Timmana, author of Pari- 

jatapaharanam, 106. 
Nandyal, 45, 102. 
Nannaparya, Nadindla, I46. 



Naragonda, 88. 

Naraharipatra, 137. 

Narapa, JilJella, father-in-law of 

Chinna Venkata, 311. 
Naraparaju, officer under Raghu- 

natha of Tanjore, 260. 
Narapativijayam (Ramarajr- 

yamu), 21, 79. 
Narasabhupaliyamu, 224. 

Narasa Nayaka, son of Isvara, 
general of Saluva Narasimha, 
fight with the Sultan of Bidar, 
the order of his campaigns, 8, 
10, 87, 106, 108, 158, 170, 176, 

Narasaraju, Pochiraju, 224. 

Narasappa, officer under Raghu- 
natha of Tanjore, 259. 

Narasimhacharya, Ettur, raises 
the ghosts that affiicted Viru- 
paksha, 6, 72. 

Narasimha, Saluva, Saluva- 
bhyudayam throws much 
light on the career of — , 7, 90 ; 
his usurpation, 7, 86 ; beats 
his enemy up to Rajamundri, 
7 ; starts from Chandragiri, 91 ; 
captures Udayagiri, 8, 9, 50, 
80, 91 ; author of Ramabhyu- 
daya, 32, 83 ; his campaigns, 
86, 88, 99, 170, 176, 204. 

Narasimha, other name of Nara- 
sa, 108. 

Narasimha, Jillejla, father-in- 
law of Sriranga Chikka Raya, 

Narasimhapuranam, dedicated 

to Narasa Nayaka, 85. 
Narasingama, wife of Rama, 

son of Tirumala Raya I, 213. 

Narasingamma, wife of Prince 

Rama, grandson of Aliya 

Rama Raya, 184. 
Narayana, author of Ragha- 

vendravijaya, 252. 
Narayanapuram, 35. 
Narbada, 92. 
Narayanldevi, queen of the 

Emperor Vijaya, 68. 
NarayanTvilasam, of Prince 

Virupaksha, 53. 
Nava Tirupati, 1 17. 
Nayanmars, 155. 

Negapatam, the Portuguese 
driven from — by Raghu- 
natha, 271 ; Chengamala Das 
is taken to — , 325. 

Nellore, 4, 57. 

Nellore District in the posses- 
sion of the Gajapati, 7. 

Nelson, his dating the founda- 
tion of the Nayakship of 
Madura, 8, 13, 312. 

Nepala (Jaffna), Raghunatha's 
expedition against — , 265, 270, 
284, 287. 

Nllakantha Nepala (Nepal), 
Sankanna Nayaka visits — . 

Nizam-ul-Mulk of Ahmadnagar, 

Nizcm Shah, 130, 178, 182, 213, 
216, 222, 305, 306. 

North Arcot District, 21. 

Nrsimha, Rama, 228. 

Nrsimhadeva, 35. 

Nrsimhaguru, 71. 

Nrsimhasramin, 204. 

Nuniz, his account of Achyuta 
Raya utterly confused, 11, 14. 

Nuru Khan defeated by Rana 
Jagadeka Raya, 228, 229. 

Oba, Gobburi, father-in-law of 

the Emperor Venkatapati, 

Oba, Gobburi, father-in-law of 

Prince Rama, 184. 
Oba, Gobburi, father-in-law of 

the Emperor Peddavenkata, 

Oba, Pochiraju, brother-in-law 

of AHya Rama Raya, 225. 
Oba, Surapa, father-in-law of 

Prince Rama, 184. 
Obala, father of Siddhiraju 

Timmaraju, 211. 
Obala Raju, officer under Ra- 

ghunatha of Tanjore, 260. 
Obamamba, mother of Achyuta 

Raya, 108, 158, 172. 
Obamma, wife of the Emperor 

Venkatapatiraya, 243. 
Obamma, wife of Prince Rama, 




Obamma, wife of Srlranga, 
Chikka Raya, 244. 

Obamma, wife of Rama rescued 
by Yacha, 244. 

Oddadi, reduced by Krishna 
Raya, 133- 

Oddiya, 86. 

Oduva Tirumalamma, same as 
Tirumalamba of Varadam- 
bikaparinayam, 170. 

Oppert, Dr. G., Editor of Rama- 
rajlyam, 6. 

Orissa, Krishna Raya's cam- 
paign against—, II; advance 
of — to the south, 5, 57, 86, 1 30, 
143, 155, 158, 236. 

Ormuz, importation of horses 

_ from, 4, 57. 

Orugallu (Warrangal), 182. 

Owk, 103, 129. 

Padaivldu (Rajagambhiram), 


Padishah Vazir, title of Hande 
Malakappa Nayudu, 232. 

Padma Purana, 345. 

Paigova (Pegu), 183, 305. 

Palar, 23. 

Palavaneri, Raghunatha en- 
camped at — , 259. 

Palemkota Yatiraja defeated at 

— , 305.' 
Panchamatabhanjanam, 202. 

Panchalaraya, II2. 
Panchanada, 267. 
Pandanalluru, fort of — con- 
structed by Vijayaraghava, 


Pandu, 45. 

Panduva (Panve), 22$. 

Pandya, the — carried the com- 
plaint against Nagama Naya- 
ka to Krishna Raya, 12; 
carries the complaint against 
Sellappa to Achyuta Raya, 
12 ; King killed by Narasa, 
9 ; country conquered by 
Udaya Martanda, 16 ; retire 
to Tinnevelly, 'lO, III, 158, 
205, 270, 319, 205, 255. 

Paneraju, father-in-law of 
Prince Timma, son ; of Aliya 
Rama, 185. 

Pangal, 183. 

Pangalur, 195. 

Pannala, 305. 

Panugal, 238. 

Papa, Davalu, defeated by 

Chenna, 305. 
Papamma, Queen of Srlranga 

HI, 311. 
Parakrama Pandya, Arlkesari, 

Paramayogivilasam, 211. 
Parangi (Portuguese), 267, 287. 
Parankusamahamuni, 233. 
Pararajasekhara Pandara, made 

king of Jaffna by Andreu 

Fustado, 287. 
ParasTkas (Portuguese), 27I; 
Paravaranavarana, title granted 

to Sivappa Nayaka by Srl- 
ranga Raya III, 347. 
Parijatapaharanamu by Nandi 

Timma Kavi, II, 106, 138, 172. 
Parijataharanam of Raghu- 
natha, 267, 270. 
Pasupatikoil, 267. 
Pattukkottai, fort constructed by 

Vijayaraghava Nayaka of 

Tanjore, 324. 
Patupettanurpura, 1 58. 
Pavachala, 65. 
Peda Chevva, elder brother of 

Chevva of Tanjore, 254. 
Peda Malla, brother of Chinna 

Chevva of Tanjore, 254. 
Peda Jagadeka Raya (Rana), 228. 
Peda Timma, son of Aliya Rama 

Raya, 184. 
Peddana, Allasani, I13, 131, 152. 

Peddanandiraju, Jillella, father- 
in-law of AUya Rama Raya, 

Peddavenkata, grandson of 
Aliya Rama, 185, 310. 

Pedda Virappa Nayaka, Vlr- 
appa Nayaka of Tanjore, 324 

Pemmasani Peda Vira, his life 
saved by Lingamantri, 241. 

Pemmasani Ramalinga, II2, 

Pemmasani Timma, II2, 241. 
Pennar, VenkatapatI defeats 

Kutb Shah on the banks of 

the — , 243. 



Penukonda captured by Saiuva 
Narasimha, 8 ; supports Ali- 
yarama Raya, 15 ;, capital re- 
moved to — , 18 ; SrTranga be- 
sieged at — , 19, 68, 86, 88, 92, 
178, 181, 216, 229, 255, 272, 285, 

Periyalavar, 1 33. 

Perumal Parakrama Pandya, 

Perumal Mudaliar, officer under 

Raghunath of Tanjore, 260. 
Persia, 103, 205. 
Pikkiliu reduced by Saluva 

Narasimha, 86. 
Pillai Lokacharya, 33. 

Pillalamarri PinavTrabhadra, 
same as PinavTrabhadra (Pil- 

Pimenta, his account of Solaga, 
286 ; his account of Davalu 
Papa, 305. 

Pinana Mulk, 225. 

Pinavenkatadri, son of Achyuta 
Raja, 158. _ 

Papa Timma, Aravlti, 205. 

PinavTrabhadra, Pillalamarri, 

29, 85. 
Pinnama, 80. 

Pochama, wife of Timma, Gov- 
ernor of Raichur and son of 
Aliya Rama, 185. 

Pochiraju Ramaraju, father-in- 
law of Ramaraya, 244. 

Potabhupala of Gingi, 272. 

Potasamudra, village founded 
by Surappa Nayaka of Gingi, 

Potnuri Simhadri, 1 1 5. 

Pottunur, 115, 132, 158. 

Praharesvara, 133, 137. 

Prapannamrtam, 2, 6, 8, 33, 71, 
73, 202, 251. 

Prasannaraghava Nataka, 212. 

Prthugiri (Penukonda), 91. 

Prayogaratnamala, 53. 

Punjab, the importation of 
camphor from the — , 4, 57. 

Podiyil Hill, II7. 

Portuguese, I, 6, 21 ; coming of 
the — to the West Coast, 4 ; — 
chronicles corrected by litera- 
ture, 10 ; — Government, its 

! disintegrating activity, 17, 271, 

287, 337. 
I Pulikat (Pralayakaveri), the 
! Dutch at — , 21. 
\ Prabodha-Chandrodaya, 1 16, 

Vyakhya, II, 144. 
Pralayakaveri (Pulikat), the 

Dutch at — , 308. 
Pratapadeva Raya, 66, 68. 
) Pratapagiri (SrTsailam), 68. 
I Prataparudra Gajapati', II, 137, 
I 143, 144, 151. 
i Prataparudra H, 55. 
Praudhadeva Raya, 56, 65, 192- 

Prayogaratnamala, commentary 

on the Srauta Sutras, 3. 
Premabhiramam, Sanskrit 

drama ; rendered into Telugu, 
4, 55. 
Pudukkotah plates, 248. 
Pulladesa, granted to Chaun- 

dappa Nayaka, 194. 
Pundraka, 83. 

Puram Timma Nedu, officer 
under Virappa Nayaka during 
Jagga Raya's revolt, 260. 
Purchas, His Pilgrimes, 222. 
Purushottama (Jagannath), 233. 
Purushottama, King of Orissa, 
• Purushottamaya, officer under 
Raghunatha, 259. 
Pusapati Rachirja, 137. 
Puttapalli, 182. 

Rachabebbuli, title of Matla 
i Ananta, 248. 

Racha Nayaka, Cheruku, 79. 

Rachappagaru, the agent of 
Sathagopa Jiyyangaru, 233. 
'. Rachiraja, father-in-law of 

I Achyuta, 172. 
j Rachiraja, Pusapati, 137. 
I Rachuru (Raichur), III, 182, 13I. 

Raghavadeva, 81. 

Raghavamrna, wife of the 
emperor SrTranga III, 311. 
i Raghavaraya, Tirumala, 137. 
1 Raghavendra, 252. 



Raghavendravijaya" of Nara- 

yana, 252. 
Raghunatha, son of the Emperor 

Tirumala Raya, 213, 216. 

Ragunatha of Tanjore helps 
Ramadeva Raya to regain 
the throne, 20; his part in the 
war with Jagga Raya, 244; 
honours Sudhlndra, 252, 253 ; 
his achievements, 255 ; wins 
the battle at Palavaneri, 259, 
265 ; his literary and artistic 
accomplishments, 267, 269 ; 
he captures the Cholaga, 271, 
288; defeats the Nayak of 
Madura, 290; defeats the 
Nayak of Gingi, 290; drives 
the Portuguese from Jaffna, 
289, 323. 

Raghunatha, Pochiraju, father- 
in-law of Venkatapati, brother 
of SrTranga III, 31 1. 

Raghunatha, Pochiraju, father- 
in-law of SrTranga, son of 
Aliya Rama, 185. 

Raghunathabhyadayam, by 

Vijayaraghava Nayaka, 254, 
259, 284. 

Raghunathabhyadayam, by 

Ramabhadramba, 244, 284. 

Raghunathapura, village found- 
ed by Vijayaraghava of 
Tanjore, 255. 

Raghunatha Rajuof Owk, officer 
under Raghunatha of Tanjore, 

Raghunathavilasa, dance per- 
formed before Raghunatha of 
Tanjore, 291. 

Raghuvara, father of Rana 
Lakshmamma, 228. 

Raichur, Achyuta lays siege to 
and reduces — , 14, 80, 131, 
160, 225, 241. 

Rajagambhlram, 23. 

Raja Wodeyar lays siege to 
Seringapatam, 19. 

Rajamundri, in the possession 
of the Gajapati, and Saluva 
Narasimha's advance as far 
as — , 7, 184. 

Rajanatha father of Sonadrina- 
tha, 85. 

Rajanatha Dindima, author of 

Saluvabhyudayam, 30, 50, 90, 

158, 176. 
Rajanatha Kavi, author of 

Achyutarayabhyudayam, 108, 

Rajapalayam, the Pandyas at — , 

Rajasekhara Charitram by 

Madayagari Mallana, 146, 149. 
Rama, son of SrTranga Chikka 

Raya rescued by Yachama 

Nayaka, 244, 265, 304. 
Rama, son of Emperor Tirumala 

Raya, 213, 216, 302. 
Rama, son of Konda and grand- 
son of Aliya Rama Raya, 184. 

Rama, PochTraju, father-in-law 
of PrTnce Tirnma, nephew of 
the Emperor SrTranga III, 31 1. 

Ramabana, title granted to 
Sivappa Nayaka by SrTranga 
Raya III, 347. 

Ramabhadra, Nadindla, 146. 

Ramabhadramba, authoress of 
Raghunathabhyudayam, 270, 

Ramabhyudayam, 2, 31, 50, 83. 

Ramachandrapuram, 144. 

Ramachandrapura, Bhadrappa 

Nayaka of Ikkeri performs 

Tulabhara at — , 348. 
Ramadurga, captured by Saluva 

Gunda, 32. 
Ramagiri, 183. 
Rama Raja (ChattradhTpati) 

takes refuge in the state of 

IkkerT, 349. 
Ramaraja Nayaka, son of Dodda 

Sankanna Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

Rama Raja Vitthala, same as 
Vitthala Rama Raja. 

RamarajTyam by Venkayya, 19 
102, 181, 213, 222, 243, 310. 

Rama, son of AravTtT Bukka> 
general of Saluva Narasimha» 
8, 102. 

Rama, Viceroy of SerTngapatam, 

Rama, Prince, son of Venkata- 
pati, brother of SrTranga III, 



Rama Raya, Aliya, 6 ; his wars 
against Salakam Timniaraju, 
15, 178, 216; his conquests, 181, 
182, 190, 194; restores Govinda- 
raja at Chidambaram, 202 ; 
his wars with the Adil Shah, 
Kutb Shah and the Nizam 
Shah, 182, 216, 222. 

Rama II raised to the throne by 
Raghunatha, 20. 

Ramabhadra, son of Raghu- 
natha of Tanjore, 254. 

Ramalinga, Pemmasani, 1 12, 


Ramanuja, 72, 202. 

Ramarajabhushana, 2l6, 221. 

RamarajTyamu, edited by Dr. 
Oppert, 6, 16, 79, 102, 222. 

Rama Raju, officer under Raghu- 
natha of Tanjore, 260. 

Ramabhadra, Raghunatha 's 
elephant. 259. 

Ramananda, tala invented by 
Raghunatha of Tanjore, 269. 

Rama Saudha, palace of Raghu- 
natha of Tanjore, 260, 265. 

Ramasetu, I06, 267. 

Ramayamatya Todaramalla, 

Ramayana, read to VirQpaksha 

by Ettur Narasimhacharya, 6, 

Ramaya Mantri Bhaskara, 1 14. 
Ramayya ,Pantulu, J., silver 

plate of Sivaji, 312 fn. 
Ramesvara, Sankanna Nayaka 

constructs at Ikkeri the temple 

of -- 338. 
Ramesvaram, Narasa's visit to 

— , 9, 91, 171, 285. 
Ramesvaram, Sankanna Nayaka 

of Ikkeri visits, 338 ; Sivappa 

Nayaka of Ikkeri^s benefac- 
tion at — , 347. 
Rana family, 227. 
RanaduUa Khan, 344. 
Ranga, Achyuta's uterine 

brother, II. 
Ranga, Jillella, father-in-law of 

Prince Gopala, 222. 
Ranga Raja, brother of Siddhi- 

raju Timmaraju, 211. 
Ranga of the Yacha family, 


Rangabharana, 291. 
Rangamma, mother of the Matla 
Ananta, 248. 

Rangamma, wife of Venkatadri, 

Rangaraja, JilleUa, father-in- 
law of the Emperor Venkata- 
patiraya, 243. 

Ranganatha, Idol of — , 2. 

Ranganatha, Venkatappa 

Nayaka of Ikkeri constructs 
the temple of — , 345. 

Rasamanjari, work by Krishna 
Raya, 133. 

Ratillla, 291. 

Ratnakheta Srinivasa Dikshita, 
patronised by the Nayaks of 
Ginji, 272-fn. 

Ratnakuta, 190. 

Ravela Velikonda Venkatadri, 
killed by Matli Ananta, 248. 

Ravelavaru, 131. 

Ravella Venka defeated at 
Topur, 290. 

Rayadurgam, 182. 

. Raya Nayaka, title of the Keladi 
Chiefs, 195. 
Rayappa, helps against Jagga 
i Raya, 244. 

! Rayasa Ahobala, author of 
Kuvalayavilasa, 230. 

Rayasam Kondamarusu, 1 14. 
Rayasam Venkatapati, author 
of Lakshmivilasam, 230. 

Rayavachakam, II, 1 10. 
Recjdi chiefs, loss of influence 
of— ,5. 

' Relatalli ( .?) (Kilanilai) fort con- 
structed by Vijayaraghava 
Nayaka of Tanjore, 324. 

Remati Venkatayya Dalavay of 
prince Tirumala of Seringa- 
patam, 302. 

Rettahalli, 182. 

Rettamatam, work dedicated to 
Kondaraju Venkataraju, 233. 

Rudramba, 145. 

Rudrapa, 79. 

ganam, work of Raghunatha, 



Sadasiva, II ; his cause espoused 
by the queens of Krishna 
Raya, 14, 15, 190, 216, 302. 

Sadasiva, son of Keladi Chau- 
dappa Nayaka, 194. 

Sadasivapura, 196. 

Sadasivasagara, 196. 

Sada^ivasagara, new town con- 
structed by Venkatappa 
Nayaka of Ikkeri, 345. 

Sagara (Sagar), 133, 183. 

Sahityaratnakara, 244, 269. 

Sahitya Sudha by Govinda 
Dikshita, 267. 

Sakalakathasarasangraham by 

, Krishna Raya, 133. 

Sakkarepatna, Sivappa Nayaka 
of Ikkeri defeated at — , 21. 

Salaka Raju, 14, 158, 1/2. 

Salakaraju Timma Raju, same 
as Timma Raju Salakaraju, 
12, 216, 224. 

Salivatam (Tinnevelly), II7. 

Salava Malla, brother of Bhaira 
Devi of Garasoppi, 344. 

Saluva Nayaka, Sellappa had 

the title, 12. 
Saluvabhyudayam, 2, 30, 48, 90, 

Saluva Mangu, 2, 29, 30, 32, 48, 

Saluva Narasimha : see Nara- 

simha Sajuva. 
Saluva Timma, same as Timma 

Saluva Tippa, same as Tippa 

Saluva, 9. 
Saluvendra, 91. 
Saiva Timma, chief defeated by 

Sadasiva Nayaka, 195. 
Samayavaram, 35. 

Sambuvarayan, defeated by 

Gopanna, 2, 29, 30, 50. 
Sampeta Nagaraju of Mitta- 

paiem, officer of Raghunatha 

of Tanjore, 260. 
Sanderu, 183. 
Sangala, village, Sankanna Na- 

yaka's benefactions at — , 339. 
Sangama, father of Bukka, 68. 
Sangama, son of Bukka I, 23, 49, 


Sangili Kumara, his revolt in 

Jaffna, 287. 
Sangltaratnakara, 192. 
Sanglta Sudha by Raghunatha 

Nayaka, 269. 
Sankula Nayaka, 13I. 

Sankaranarayana Bhatta, chief 
of Venupura, defeated by 
Venkatappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 
, 345. 

Sankaranarayanar Koil, I17. 

Santanika, 72. 

Sante Bennur, 344. 

Sapada, 103, 213, 2l6. 

Saranamantri, Paidigantam, 65. 
SarasvatTvilasa by Lolla Laksh- 
mldhara, 151. 

Saravati, river, 348. 

Sarrigadeva, 192. 

Sarvagna Singama, patron of 

Srinatha, 4, 61. 
Satanikota, captured by Soma- 

devaraja, 80. 

Satyaparinayam, by Ekamra- 

natha, 229. 
SatyavadhuprTnanam, work by 

Krishna Raya, 133. 
Saundaryalaharl, 152. 

Savaga (Seogi), 183. 
Savai, 103, 204, 238. 
Savai Bibbi, 103. 
Savai Jai Singh, 103, 
Savai Madhava Rao, 103. 

Sayana-brother of Madhava, 2, 

^ 46, 47, 48. 

Sellappa, rises to power under 
Krishna Raya, revolts, flees for 
protection into Travancore, 
12, 158. 

Seringapatam, 8 ; captured by 
Narasa Nayaka, 9, 10, 14, 106, 
108, III, 171, 217, 227, 248, 

Seshadharmamulu, 65. 

Setu, 141. 

Sewell, Mr. R., recovers the 
history of Vijayanagar, I, 
289; List of Antiquities, 18. 

Shadbhashachandrika, 212. 

Shaji, leads the Bijapur inva- 
sion, 21, 326. 



Shimoga, presented to Venka- 
tappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 344. 

Sholinghur, 202. 

Shiraj, 306. 

Siddhabhikshavrtti, 68. 

Siddhala Devi, queen of Deva 
Raya II, 68. 

Siddhamantri, Vennelaganti, 

Siddappa Nayaka, son of 

Chikka Sankanna Nayaka of 

Ikkeri, 338. 
Siddhiraju, ancester of Siddhi- 

raju Timmaraju, 211. 
Siddhiraju Timmabhupala, 21 1. 
Siddhout inscription of Matli 

Ananta, 248. 
Sikharesvara, Venkatappa 

Nayaka of Ikkeri constructs 

the temple of — , 345. 
Simhadri Pottunur, I15, 155. 
Simhachalam, 144. 
Simhala Devi, 68. 
Simhaialila, 291. 
Simhavikramapattana (Nellore), 

'57- _ ■ , , 

Singa, son of AravTti Bukka, 

Singa helps against Jagga Raya, 

Singa of the Yacha family, 304- 

Singama, Sarvagna, same as 

Sarvagna Singama. 
Singamatya, Nandi, 138. 
Singamamba, wife of Nadindla 

Namana Mantri, 146. 
Singa (Rana), 228. 
Singana, Sayana/s son, 47. 
Singaracharya, Ettur, 71. 

Singavaram, 35. 

Singayya, Ghanta, 87, 138. 

Sirumana Atukuru, 68. 

Sirya (Slra), Bhadrappa Nayaka 

of Ikkeri, captures — , 348. 
Siva, Rana, son of Ankusa, 228. 

Sivadeva, 144, 145 

Sivadvaita, 350. 

Sivaganga fort constructed at 

Tanjore by Chevvappa 

Nayaka, 323. 
Sivaganga, Sivappa Nayaka of 

Ikkeri's benefactions at — , 347- 

SivagTta, commented on by 
Venkatappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

, 345. 

Sivaji, 21, 22, 312. 

Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 21, 

, 309, 346. 

Sivappa Nayanigunta, tank 

constructed at Tanjore by 

Chevvappa Nayaka, 321. 
Sivarajapura, village founded 

by Bhadrappa Nayaka of 
, Ikkeri, 348. 
Sivarajapura, village founded 

by Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

Sivasamudram, capture of— 

by Krishna Raya, II, III, 130, 
, 138. 
Sivatatvaratnakara, I94» 337. 

, 344. 

Solaga, Raghunatha's victory 

over — , 265. 
Sollalapuram (Sonnalapuram), 

Somadeva Raja, capturer of the 

seven forts, 6, 79, 102. 
Somasekhara Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

, 348. 
Sonadrinatha, 85. 

Sonnalapuram, 178, 183. 

Sonagirlsa, 270. 

Sonagirinatha, Dindima, 176. 

SrTgiri Raju, officer under 

Raghunatha of Tanjore, 260. 
Srikakulam, 132. 
Srikandur (Tiruchchendur), II7. 
Srlkanthesvara, 145 
Srinatha, author of Haravi- 

lasam, patronised by Deva 
, Raya II, 4, 57, 60. 
Srinatharaju, 137 
Srinivasaguru, 202. 
Srinivasa-sthala, 267. 
Sripada, Damarla, 304. 
Srlparvatam, 68. 
Sripatiraju, officer under 

Raghunatha of Tanjore, 26o._ 
Srlrama, sign manual of Viru- 

paksha, 6, 73- 
Sriramambika, mother-in-law of 

Achyuta Raya, 172. 



Sriranga, son of AravTti Rama 
Raja, 103, 190, 216. 

Sriranga Raya, son of Al.iya 
Rama Raya, 184. 

Sriranga I succeeds Tirumala, 
18 ; raises the siege of Penu- 
konda, 19; his expeditions 
against Bijapur, Ahmadnagar 
and Golkonda, 213 ; defeats 
Kutb Shah, 230 ; is taken 
prisoner, 232 ; Ahobilam reco- 
vered from the Muhammadans 
during the time of — , 233; 
concludes peace with Ibrahim 

, Kutb Mulk, 236, 241, 272, 302. 

Sriranga II, adopted son of 
Venkatapati Raya, 19 ; his 
family, 244 ; killed by Jagga 

, Raya, 244, 286. 

Sriranga III succeeds Pedda 
Venkata, 311 ; fights at the 
battle of Erode, 21 ; Vijaya- 
raghava Nayaka of Tanjore 
fights on behalf of — , 255, 304 ; 
Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri 
takes up his cause and con- 
quers for him some territory, 
309 ; regains Vellore with the 
help of Sivappa Nayaka and 
presents him with jewels and 

, titles, 347. 

Sriranga, son of Timma, nephew 
of the Emperor Sriranga III, 

, 311. 

Sri Rangaraja, son of Araviti 
Timma, 205. 

Sriranga Raja, son of Pochiraju 

, Narasa, 225. 

Srirangacharya, Ettur, 71. 

Srirangam, temples at —restored 
2, 32, 34 ; Achyuta marches to 
— , 20 ; Jagga Raya and his 
allies march to — , 20, 90, 132, 
159, 255, 267, 273, 285, 324. 

Srlrangapati Raju, officer under 

, Raghunatha of Tanjore, 260. 

Srirangapatana, 88, 131, 160. 

Srl^ailam plates of Virupaksha, 

. 6, 68, 132, 255, 285. 

Srl^ailapQrna, 72, 202. 

Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri's 

, benefactions at — , 347. 

Srlvallabha, Pudukkottah plates 
of — , 248. 

Srivallabharayacharitram, 154. 
Srlvilliputtur, I17, 322. 

Sri Van Sathagopa Svami, 233, 
same as Sathagopa Jiyyan- 

Sri Virupaksha, sign manual of 
, — 6, 73. , 

Sringapura (Sringeri) Venkat- 
appa Nayaka's benefactions 
^ at — , 345. 

Srutiranjani, 212. 

St. Thome, the Portuguese at — , 

Subrahmanya Bhadrappa 

Nayaka's benefactions at — , 

Sudarsana Bhatta, 34. 
Sudhlndra, 252. 
Sujata Khan, killed by Rana 

Jagadeka Raya, 228, 229. 
Sukkula Nayaka, III. 

Sukracharya, 18, 221. 
Suktinaipunijfiana Chintamani, 

work by Krishna Raya, 133. 
Sulba Sutras, commented on by 

Yagnanarayana Diksnita, 

Sundarachalam, 34 (Alagar 

Surapa, the cavalry commander, 

Surapa Krishnapa, father-in-law 

of Venkatapati, brother of 

Sriranga III, 311. 
Surappa Nayaka of Gingi, 272. 
Surasamudra, village founded 

by Surappa Nayaka of Gingi, 

Surendra, Madhva teacher, 252. 
Sutasamhita, 51. 
Suvarnameru, 92. 
Suvarnamukhi, 92. 
Svaramelakalanidhi, 190. 

Taladlpika, 63. 

Taiikota, the battle of — , 6, I4, 

18, 194, 221, 229, 272, 310. 
Taluva Ku)aindan Bhattar, 

father of ^eliappa, 12. 
Tamarimilla Khan } defeated 

by Ibrahim Kutb Mulk, 238, 



Tamil Navalar Charitai, 155. 
Tammaya Mantri, cousin of 

Chennamaraju, Minister of 

Snrarigaraya, 241. 
Tamraparni, China Timma sets 

up a pillar of victory on the 

banks of the—, 16, 32, 159, 

Tandave^vara, Vehkatappa Na- 

yaka of Ikkeri constructs the 

temple of — , 345. 
Tanjavuri Andhra Rajula Chari- 

tra, 319- 
Tanjore, 20, 252, 254, 264, 269, 

309, 319- 
Tapatlsamvaranam dedicated to 

Ibrahim Kutb Mulk, 238. 
Tarasangi, conquered by 

Narasa, 171. 
Tarigoppula Mallana, author of 

Chandrabhanu Charitram, 247. 
Tariyakere, the chief of —helps 

Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 


Tatacharya, 202. 

Tatacharya, Satakratu, preceptor 
of Vijayaraghava Nayaka of 
Tanjore, 254. 

Tatapinnama Raja, 79. 

Tatparya Dipika, 51. 

Tatvaprakasar, 1 55. 

Taulavas, 195. 

Telaganarya, Ponnikanti, author 
of Yayaticharitram, 237. 

Telingana Coast, Vijayanagar, 
expansion towards the — , 4. 

Telugu country, Narasa's cam- 
paigns against the — , 9. 

Tenkasi, founded by the Pand- 
yas, 10, 117, 171, fn. 322. 

Tigula Bhumi, 86. 

Timma Raju, Salakam, defeated 
outside the capital, 16, 178, 

Timma Raju, Salakaraju 
marches to the Tiruvadi coun- 
try, ^brought Tiruvadi king 
and Sellappa as prisoners to 
Achyuta, 12. 

Timma, Salakam Pina termi- 
nation of his power, 17. 

Timma Saluva, Minister of 
Krishnadeva Raya, II, III, 
130, author of Agastya 

Champu Vyakhya, 143, 144, 

146, 149. 
Timmabhupala, SHdhiraju, 21 1. 
Timma, son of AravTti Rama 

Raja, 103, 204, 210, 216. 

Timma, elder brother of Aliya 

Rama Raya, 2l6, 224. 
Timma, Prince, son ,of Venkata- 

pati, brother of SrTranga III, 

Timma, brother of Narasa, 108. 
Timma, Governor of Raichur, 

son of Aliya Rama Raya, 184. 
Timma, Nadindla,' father of 

Nadindla Appa, 146. 
Timma, grand-father of Narasa, 

108, 170, 176. 
Timma Mantri, father of Na- 
dindla Appa, 144, 149. 
Timma, Pemmasani, 112. 
Timma, Pochiraju, father-in-law 

of Aliya Rama Raya, 184. 
Timma, Damarla, son of Da- 

marla Chenna, 304. 
Timma (Rana), 228. 
Timma, Damarla, brother of 

Damarla Vengala, 304. 
Timma, Velugoti, father-in-law 

of Damarla Dharma, 304. 

Timma, father of Chevva of 

Tanjore, 254, 285. 
Timmayya, Kasarakota, officer 

under Kodandarama at the 

battle of Hassan, 312. 
Timma Raju, Kondraju, 233. 
Timmamba, mother of Aliya, 

Rama Raya, 190, 216. 
Timmamamba, Queen of Em- 
peror SrTranga I, 213. 
Timmamba, wife of Damarla 

Chenna, 304. 
Timmamma, wife of Prince 

Rangapa, son of Venkatadri, 

Timmamma, wife of Prince 

Gopala, 222. 
Timma or Yeratimma, other 

name of Tirumala Raya I, 

Timmamba, mother of Nandi 

Timmana, 138. 
Timmana, Nandi, I06, 138. 
Timmana, Mukku, 113, 131. 



Timmanarya, father of Ragha- 

vendra Tirtha, 252. 
Tinnevelly, the Pandyas retire 

to the district of — , 1 5. 
Tippa, officer of Harihara II, 56. 
Tippa, Saluva, brother-in-law of 

Deva Raya II, 9. 
Tippamba, wife of Bukka II, 54. 
Tippa mba, queen of Narasa, 106 

T08, 109, 172. 

Tippaya Setti, Avachi, SrTnatha 
dedicates his work to — , traded 
with foreign countries and 
possessed ships, 4, 57. 

TTrthahalli, 348. 

Tlrtharajapura (Tlrthahalli), 

Bhadrappa Nayaka of Ikkeri 
performs the gift of Hiranya- 
garbha at — , 348. 

Tiruchchendur, 1 17. 

Tirtakkottiyur, 34. 

Tirukkurungudi, II7. 

Tirumala, a son-in-law of 
Krishna Raya, 14, 178, 182, 
212, 213, 216, 221, 247, 272. 

Tirumala, Pedda and Pinna, the 

brother-in-law of Achyuta, 14 ; 

their position, the cause of the 

trouble in Achyuta's reign, 14, 

Tirumala (brother of Aliya 

Rama), 16, 231. 
Tirumala (China Timma), his 

expedition to the south, 16. 
Tirumala, sent to put down the 

rebellionjn Madura, 19, 213. 
Tirumala, Araviti, 205. 
Tirumala, son of Chinna Ven- 

kata, 311. 
Tirumala, Damarla, son of Da- 

marla Vengala, 304. 
Tirumala Devi, Krishna Raya's 

queen, II7, 178. 

Tirumala Kantaraya, 137. 
Tirumalamba, daughter of 

Krishna Raya and wife of 

Aliya Rama Raya, 185. _ 
Tirumala Devi, wife of Araviti 

Timma, 205. 
Tirumalamba, daughter of 

Saluva Timma, 146, 149. 
Tirumalamba, authoress of Vara- 

dambikaparinayam, 170. 

Tirumalamba, wife of Pochiraju 

Narasa, 225. 
Tirumalamba, wife of prince 

Konda, 184. 
Tirumalamma, wife of Achyuta 

Raya, 323. 
Tirumalamma, Oduva, same as 

Tirumalamba of Varadam- 

bikaparinayam, 170. 
Tirumala Raghavaraya, 137. 
Tirumala, Damarla Chenna, 

advances to — ; 305. 
Tirumalaraju, Kondraju, 234. 

Tirumalarya, author of Chikka- 
devaraya^Vamsavali, 302. 

Tirumala Sauri (Tirumala Na- 
yaka), 324. 

Tirumalirunjolai, II7. 

Tirupati, 34, 91, Il6, 132, 155, 

Tirupati, Achyutaraya anoint- 
ed at — , II. 

Tirupatiraju, Kondraju, 248. 

Tiruppattur, fort constructed by 
Vijayaraghava Nayaka of 
Tanjore, 324. 

Tiruvadi Rajyam, Sellappa flees 
for protection to — , 12, 205. 

Tiruvadi Rajyasthapanacharya, 

Tiruvaiyar, 267, 290. 

Tiruvalur, 155. 

Tiruvandina Pillay, officer under 
Vlrappa Nayaka during Jagga 
Raya's revolt, 260. 

Tiruvannamalai, 91, 159, 27O, 
285, 323. 

Tiruvengala Matli, son of Matli 
Ananta, 249. 

Tiruvengalamba, wife of Chinna 
Venkata, 311. 

Tiruvengalamba, wife of Prince 
Timma, nephew of the Em- 
peror Sriranga III, 311. 

Tiruvidain'^arudur, 91. 

Tltappa Setti, officer under 
Raghunatha Nayaka during 
Jagga Raya's revolt, 260. 

Tondamandalam, 2. 

Tondamandalam conquered by 
Narasa, 170. 

Topur, defeat of Jagga Raya at 
— , 288, now known as Tohur, 
289, 305. 



Toragal, 225. 

Toragantivaru, 131. 

Tosekhana Adhikari, Nagama 

Nayaka appointed as — , 319. 
Totadri, 1 1 7. 
Tukka, daughter of Gajapati 

and wife of Krishna Raya, 

116, 143. 
Tukkapanchakam, II6, I43. 
Tulu, 350. 

Tuluva lords, the, 131- 
Tumkiir, conquered by Narasa, 

Tundira, country, 23, 255. 
Traigarta, part of the territory 

of Ikkeri Basava, 350. 
Travancore, Sellapa flees to — , 

12, 17, 158. 
Trichinopoly, Muhammadan 

garrisons at — , 29, 305, 326. 
Trikutachalam (Kurralam), 117. 
Tripurantaka (Tippa), officer 

under Harihara, 57. 
Tripurantaka Ravipati, 55 
TundTra country conquered by 

Narasa, 170, 265, 285. 
Tungabhadra, 68, 344. 
TurangalTla, 291. 


Udaharanamala, of Bhoganatha, 

47, 49. ' 

Udayagiri Virupanna, same as 
Prince Virupaksha, 53. 

Udayagiri, captured by Saluva 
Narasimha, 8 ; Maharajya, 
Sangama, Viceroy of — ,46, 86, 
88, 91, 114, 131, 133, 138, 311. 

Udaya Martanda Varman, at- 
tempts to extend his dominion, 

Uddagiri (Udayagiri), 182, cap- 
tured by Ibrahim Kutb Shah, 

Uddanda Khan of Rachur, 137. 

Udupi, Bhadrappa Nayaka's 
benefactions at — , 348. 

Ummattur, II, III, 130, 1 38. 

Ushaparinayam, by Damarla 
Ankabhupala, 21. 

Uttaramalluru, Davalu Papa 

_ defeated at — , 305. 

Utukuru, battle of — , 248. 

Vallabhacharya, the Vaishnava 

teacher, 154. 
Vallabhacharya, author of Llla- 

vati, 159. 
Vallabha Raya, Governor of 

Vinikonda, translates Prema- 

bhiramam, 4, 15. 
Vallam, fort captured by 

Chokkanatha Nayaka of 

Madura, 325. 
Valmlkicharitram of Raghu- 

natha, 267. 
Vanadiraya, chiefs of Madura, 9. 
Vanamamalai, I17. 
Van Sathagopa, 233. 
Vandisvara, God, 117. 
Vanyarajas defeated by Kam- 

pana, 23. 
Varada, Nadindla, 146. 
Varada, Damarla, son of Damar- 
la Venkata, 304. 
Varada, brother of Damarla 

Vengata, 304. 
Varada, Damarla, son of Da- 
marla, 304. 
Varada, river, 345. 
Varadamba (Varadambika), 

queen of Achyuta Raya, 8, 14, 

158, 170. 
Varadambikaparinayam by 

Tirumalamba, 8, 170. 
Varagiri (Varagonda), 45. 
Varahapuranam, by Nandi Mal- 

layya and Ghanta Singayya, 

Varalakshmikalyanam, dedica- 
ted to Narasa Nayaka, 88. 
Varatungarama Pandya, Puduk- 

kota plates of — , 248. 
Vasantikaparinayam, written by 

Sathagopasvami, 233. 
Vasucharitram, 216. 
Vatavalli, village, Sankanna 

Nayaka halts at — , 338. 
Vedanta Desika, 33, 2O9. 
Vedabhashya, 48. 

Vegi, 133. 

Velapura (Vellore), re-conquered 

by Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 




Vellar (Velarius) river, 2/2. 
Vellore, capital of Venkatapati 

Raya, 243, 305, 309,311/347. 
Velugodu chiefs, 129. 
Velupukonda, 138. 
Vempa Raja, father-in-law of 

Raghunatha of Tanjore, 254. 

Venga, Pochiraju, father-in-law 

of Sriranga III, 311. 
Vengala Damarla, son of Da- 

marla Venkata, 304. 
Vengala, Damarla, 304. 
Vengala, Gobburi, father-in-law 

of Sriranga III, 311. 
Vengalabhapala Damarla, 

author of Bahulasvacharitram, 

Vengalamba, Queen of Tirumala 

Raya, 213, 2l6. 
Vengalamba, wife of Darmarla 

Dharma, 304. 
Vengalamba, wife of Potabhu- 

pala of Gingi, 272. 
Vengalambapura, village found- 
ed by Surappa Nayaka of 

Gingi, 272. 
Vengamma, wife of Prince 

Gopala, 222. 
Vengamma, wife of Emperor 

Sriranga III, 311. 
Vengamma, wife of Venkatapati, 

brother of Sriranga III, 311. 
Vengamma, wife of Damarla 

Chenna, 304. 
Vengi, 133. 
Venkaji, 21, 312. 

Venkanna, Rayasam, invites the 
Bijapur Sultan to intercede on 
behalf of Chengamala Das of 
Tanjore, 325. 

Venkata, or Chinna-Venkatadri, 
Achyuta's son, II, 159, 172. 

Venkata or Venkatadri (brother 
of Aliya Rama), 16, 2l6, 222, 

Venkata, son of Chenna of Kala- 
hasti, 21, 

Venkata, Damarla, son of Da- 
marla Chenna, 304. 

Venkata, Damarla, son of Da- 
marla Vengala, 304. 

Venkata , Pochiraju, father-in- 
law of Sriranga III, 311. 

Venkatadri, son of Prince 
Rangapa, son of Venkatadri, 

Venkatadri, son of Prince 
Venkatappa, brother of Sri- 
ranga, III, 311. 

Venkatadri, 182, 190. 

Venkatadri Ravela Velikonda, 
killed by Matli Ananta, 248'. 

Venkatagiri, 20. 

Venkatakrishnappa Nayudu, 
Dalavay commander under 
Chokkanatha Nayaka of 
Madura, 325. 

Venkatakrishnayya, Vakil, 

Officer sent to Sivaji by the 
widow of Sriranga III, 312. 

Venkatamma.. queen of Venka- 
tapati Raya, 19, 243. 

Venkatamma, sister of Damarla 
Venkata, 304. 

Venkatanatha (later on Ragha- 
vendratlrtha), 253. 

Venkatapati, viceroy at Chan- 
dragiri, 19, 20, 213, 216, 229, 
243, 247, 252, 285, 302. 

Venkatapati, son of Chinna 
Venkata, 31 1. 

Venkatapati, Matli, officer under 
Kodandarama at the battle of 
Hassan, 312, 

Venkatapatirayadandakam, 311. 

Venkatapati, Rana, 228. 

Venkatapati, Rayasam, author 
of Lakshmlvilasam, 230. 

Venkatapati, Savaram defeated 
by Vijayaraghava of Tanjore, 

Venkatappa Nayaka, son of 

Chikka Sankanna Nayaka of 

Ikkeri, 346. 
Venkatappa Nayaka, son of Dod- 

da SankannaNayaka of Ikkeri, 

337, 344. * ' 
Venkatapura, village founded by 

Bhadrappa Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

Venkataraju, driven from 

Udayagiri by Ibrahim Kutb 

Shah, 240. 
Venkataraju, Kondraju, conquers 

back Ahobilam for Sriranga 

Raja I, 233. 
Venkatavilasa palace, 158. 



Venkatesvara, God, 72. 

Venkayya, 79, 222. 

Venkoji, Ambassader to Krishna 

Raya, 130. 
Venku, Ravilja, defeated by 

Raghunatha of Tanjore, 308. 
Venupura (Bidrur?) the chief of 

— , revolts against Ikkeri, 345. 
Vibhuramuvaru (Ibharamuvaru) 

(Ibrahim Kutb Shah), 233. 
Vidyapura, 106, 108, 170, 178. 
Vidyaranya, requests Chaund- 

apacharya to write the Prayo- 

garatnamala, 3, 46, 54, 194. 
Vidyaranya, Madhava comments 

upon the Vedas, 2. 
Vijaya, 68, 192. 
Vijayabhavanaraja, palace at 

Tanjore, 265. 
Vijayagarudadri, 259. 
Vijayanagar, Rama Raya, Aliya 

marches against, 15, 231, 320. 
Vijayapura (Bijapur), III, 182, 

195, 348. 
Vijayaraghava Nayaka of Tan- 
jore, 254, author of Raghu- 
nathabhyudayam, 259, 264, 

Vijayavati (Bezwada), 132. 

Vijayavilasam, poem dedicated 
to Raghunatha of Tanjore, 

Vikfamarkacharitram by Jak- 

kana, 63. 
Vikrama Simhapura (Nellore), 4. 
Vilapakam, grant of Venkata- 

pati, 251. 

Vinikonda, a Vijayanagar Gov- 
ernorship at — , 4, 114, 121, 138, 
144, 184. 

Viniyogams (subordinate 

officers). III. 

Virabhadra Nayaka of Ikkeri, 

Vlrahobala, Saluva, 32. 
Virabhadra, Reddi king, 62. 
Virabhadra, Gajapati's son, 133. 
Virabhadra Nayaka of Ikkeri, 


Virabhadra, Venkatappa Naya- 
ka of Ikkeri constructs the 
temple of — , 345. 

Virabhadrayya, 114. 

Viramalahari, presented to Pem- 

masani Timma, 242. 
Vira Narasimha, Emperor, 106, 

108, 109, 129, 158, 205, 302. 
Vira Narasimha, Krishna Raya's 

father called — , iii, 129. 
Vira-Narasimha-Raya, Sellappa 

known otherwise as — , 12, 13. 
Vira Narasimha Raya (Nayaka), 

Virappa of Madura helps Jagga 

Raya, 244, 260, 302. 
Virappa, father of Rana Lingam- 

ma, 228. 
Viraraghava Raju, officer under 

Ragunatha of Tanjore, 260. 
Virasekhara Cliola, Nagama 

Nayaka sent against — , 12, 

Virinchipuram, 23, 48. 
Viri Nedu, Gujjula, defeated by 

Somadeva Raja, 79. 
I Virupaksha, Prince, author of 
\ Narayanlvilasam, 53. 

Virupaksha, his succession a 
usurpation, 6, 8, 66 ; the Vana- 
dirayas assert their independ- 
ence under — , 10, 71. 

Virupakhsha, Bommalata, 1 56. 

Virupaksha, God, 142. 

Virupaksha, Venkatappa Naya- 
ka of Ikkeri constructs the 
temple of — , 345. 

Virupakshapuram, 68. 

Virupanna of Jamburadesa be- 
comes hostile to Keladi, 337. 

Visakhanagara, 154. 

Vishnuchitta, 133. 

Visvanatha Dev, defeated by 
Gatata Khan, 236. 

Visvanatha volunteers to defeat 
his own father and bring his 
head, 13 ; brings him a prisoner 
to the court, I3; appointed 
governor in succession to his 
father, 14, III, 320; the dates 
of his inscriptions, 18. 

Visvanatha Nayanayya, 107. 

Visvanathapura, village founded 
by Venkatappa Nayaka of 
Ikkeri, 345- 

Vi^vesvara, God, 91. 



Visve^vara, Venkatappa Nayaka 
of Ikkeri, constructs the 
temple of — ; 345. 

Vitthala, Rama Raju, his ex- 
pedition to the south, 14, 16, 17, 
205, 286, 337. 

Vitthala Raju, officer under 
Raghunatha of Tanjore, 260. 

Vitthalaraja sent against the 
Portuguese of Goa, 337. 

Vitthala, Venkatappa Nayaka 
of Ikkeri, constructs the temple 

of — 345. 
Vitthalamma, wife of Rana 

Ankusa, 228. 
Vizagapatam, 154, 158. 
Vrddhachalam, Chinna Chev- 

va's benefactions at — , ?55, 

285, 323. 
Vrshendra, Venkatappa Nayaka 

of Ikkeri, constructs the temple 

of— ,345. 


Warrangal, 4, 55, I15. 

Yacha, son of Kasturi Ranga, 

Yachama Nayaka, rescues 
Rama Raya and fights against 
Jagga Raya, 20, 21, 244, 273, 
289, 308. 

Yachana helps Jaggaraya, 244. 

Yadava, 195. 

Yadavadri (Melkote), 34. 

Yadavamurari - Kotikolahala, 

Yadavabhyudaya Vyakhya, by 
Appayya Dikshita, 209. 

Yagnanarayana Dikshita, de- 
feated by Raghavenda Tlrtha, 
253 ; author of Sahityaratna- 
kara, 269 

Yatagiri (Yadgir) captured by 
Somadevaraja, 80, 183. 

Yatiraja defeated by Raghu- 
natha, defeated by Damarla 
Chenna at Palemkota, 290, 

Yatiraju, Gobburi, father-in-law 
of the Emperor Rama I, 244. 

Yayaticharitramu, by Ponni- 
kanti Telaganarya, 236. 

Yedulakhan (Adil Khan), 184. 

Yera Timma Raja, other name 
of the Emperor Tirumala 
Raya, 302. 

Yugandhara, 144. 

Yusuf Adil Shah, Narasa's cam- 
paigns against ^, 10, 103, 171, 



"^^rSSS^^^L renewed W o..»n. 

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